The Grenada Revolution - Caribbean Regionalism and the Diaspora

was a moment of gasworks solidarity and its damaris was a collective Caribbean trauma these are the words power phase of course of my PhD supervisor dr. Beverly mulling a Jamaican national as we sit chatting in her office one day you should write about it she concludes to begin I want to contextualize this paper as a set of questions and provocations that emerge from my PhD research it is research which is guided by this question what did ask first do this I say this to say that in the particular context of Grenada and the Grenada Revolution the place of diaspora has both historical and contemporary implications for its origins its outcomes and its present equally I want to introduce as a frame of analysis after bras conceptualization of diaspora space as the site of possibilities and gendering different sorts of ethical exchanges across difference through contemporary transnational movements of people information cultures commodities and capitals finally I want to establish here at the outset how I mean to mobilize the term revolutionary consciousness I told that has a rather specific genealogy and usage within Marxist Leninist literature and ideology revolutionary consciousness in Marxist thinking describes the state of awareness which follows class consciousness and if stimulated by perception of cultural forces that construct class relations and their vulnerability to consciously directed overthrow to bring about social change this process was to be brought about by the spontaneous unfolding of historical processes or later through intensive education of the worker later on neo-marxist think as adopted the concept to mean a heightened state of cultural awareness or an ellipsis the cultural codes that may be hidden in text however as a true Grenadian I want to vernacular the concept to highlight what scholars of the revolution have remarked upon as the divide that existed in adhering to the principles of revolutionary science and the values of adapted revolutionary socialism that actually existed in Grenada the conflicts this conflict this friction is at the heart of a number of important events during and at the denouement I want to illustrate this point from a passage in shalini Furies 2014 text using the work of David Franklin flurry illustrates the ways in which Grenadian sought to make legible scientific Marxism for the Grenadian man and woman one of Franklin's characters it is said he was fond of uttering the word dialectics it sounded sticky in his mouth like chocolate or toffee or like starchy young or dashing he loved uttering it as one loved eating chocolate or toffee or yam so Leroy and the other students nicknamed him dialectics in typical Canadian fashion dialectics transformed from high Marxist science to a mere nickname in a similar way I want to adopt the term revolutionary consciousness to mean something distinctly Grenadian in flavor as a thing which made possible a big revolution in a small place I want to ask what kind of sensibilities made it possible that juco to Grenada could take center stage as a site of global revolutionary leftist politics so why diaspora and what role does Gasper play in the imaginary of Caribbean nation states in the present what the does first face signifies as Brock would say not just a physical but a social and a psychic geography it includes networks of family kin friends colleagues and a sense of imagined community which in turn engenders a feeling of home I want to add two broad definition that the Diaspora space is also a space also functions as a depository of ideas and following as he borrows a yesterday of different fragments of home that we take with us what is feeling at home for in the form of finance capital has increasingly become the focus of attention for nation states I Grenada in their attempts to mitigate the reduction in development aid from the global north these remittances this remittance flows to the Caribbean have become the target of constituency building projects initiated and led by political entrants enterpreneurs in origin states and abroad in the case of the Caribbean these strategies emerged out of a particular colonial is discourse on the region itself that constructs it as a traditional space outside of module modernity and in many ways as the object of a set of ongoing development strategies designed to render its nation-states more amenable to global capital it is against this very job backdrop that the Revolution itself emerges as a corrective to the failure of capitalist private sector to a capitalist private sector based model of economic planning rooted in imperialist and colonial is thinking the sheer scale of the asked for ik financial transfers in the form of remittances has caught the attention of international and supranational organizations like the World Bank the World Bank's chief economist really brother for example in 2014 says there is an extremely human emotion behind remittance it's about helping your family so it's like helping yourself this way of thinking about remittances and about diaspora is problematic in its narrow focus on accumulating capital in the form of remittances and other financial investment it forecloses the possibility of imagining imagining remittances otherwise a point that Beverly Mullins make eloquently when she observed that in the Jamaican government asked for initiative for example quote issues of Finance business investment and law enforcement to precedence over those of welfare social justice and human rights at all of the dials for conferences and this reflects the hegemony of a particularly gendered view of development work and Thomas also observed that such such analytic formulations often deploy notions of origin and authenticity that impede a deeper appreciation for the more complex dynamics that undergird asked for us the value of aspirin therefore lies in the ability of members to respect the differences that exist in the emplacements of its members that are in that shared path and recognize the promise that these differences hold for social transformation in the future this simultaneous do simultaneous II of similarity and difference makes for rich diversity in the diasporic space it is the complexity and intersection of connections disjuncture symmetries and a symmetries and how they serve to both reproduce and challenge the normative ideas of what a Sporus can do best with this background in mind I want to explore what the role of the aspera can be in sustained in a revolutionary consciousness that's what that preserves for purpose charity the gain and the lessons of the Revolutionary period returning again to Puri hard work offers us a glimpse into the diasporic of origins of the revolution itself she notes that in the 1980s it was a decade of great upheaval that culminated quote in the revolutionary overthrow of the neo-colonial Geary regime in Grenada simultaneously in that period called the University of the West Indies was a political hot bed as were universities in England in the United States and Canada a brim with that for a Korean students in the process of radicalization black power was a potent cultural sensibility and political force in the African Diaspora further in the course of the Revolutionary period itself and this is going to be a long code but I think it really highlights for me the point that I'm trying to make with this with this paper beyond the literal geography of the archipelago where the stones that were flung further yet the settlements of Caribbean people in the – words and from Brooklyn to the Bronx Toronto Brixton and beyond these car B&P first students pivotal soldiers teachers janitors and barristers occupy the strange position of being insiders and outsiders at once in the center's of metropolitan power from though they supported the Grenada Revolution and protested the US invasion taking up collections in church groups running basement support groups getting information out through small publications radical bookstores and local Korean radio stations in New York the Grenada struggle would be linked to struggles across the globe for liberation and human dignity both through their gatherings and Krys crossings of space and community immigrants form the connective tissues of these cities and quote as we heard from various speakers yesterday and as the research bears out the revolution itself was a Caribbean and a diasporic effort it's occurred as a feature of worldwide movements for liberation and self-determination it brought to Grenada Shores diverse literary political and critical voices from across the Grenada and Caribbean and African Diaspora the revolution was a collective effort and an its 40th anniversary it will take a collective effort to make sure that it is celebrated commemorated and critiqued now and for generations to come the material world that the asper can play in the development of the home state is well established as both a feature of contemporary political economy of the Caribbean but as well as in the historic moment of the Revolutionary period in the aftermath of the Grenada Revolution many of its key architects and percentages migrated out of Grenada the Revolution travels both in the physical materiality of their bodies in the actual scars that many acquired in its course the revolution traveled in books the revolution traveled in pamphlets in writing in art in the material culture that constituted its ideology its ideological underpinnings and the revolution travelled as an idea it is where a lot of us the children of revolutionaries learn of and engage with the revolution itself combing through libraries of European and North American universities we became acquainted with a revolution story not our own writing or making when in whispered conversation we hear of the rebel we with in silent desperation for voices to raise beyond a whisper for conversation for that continues and for silence that breaks if as poori suggest following more Colin's shame bush that silence is the embodiment of memory visa vie the rebel I want to suggest that the space of post-revolutionary unity and US diaspora may provide the possibility for addressing and breaking these silences finally I asked what kinds of archives literary historical and other can emerge from such an engagement with diaspora how might these and gender relationships with the local population to the same end what new stories can emerge out of positioning the revolution as a dysphoric experience what stories about gender about queerness about women in the rev Oh what possibilities exist what we could think of development generally and remittances in particular otherwise what instead of looking at remittances as mere finance capital if we imagine another form that remittances can take can remittance be in the form of memory of the consciousness of people themselves can really mitt the little bits and pieces that we took with us away from Grenada from the green alien Shores can we emit a revolution in all it's messy complexity can we remit the building of an archive these are the questions that I take with me and that I hope you take with you as we move forward this project of revolutionary recovery in the Grenadian – [Applause] there's all of excitement quickly change that money to that of bewilderment when my older brother run into the house breathless before he could we made history and alguna vez spotted heading in our direction and I heard shouting free Union Island we went back our Union island the cold as if you'd look at that picture the fence in the back that's just the end of the airstrip they built a fence and they elevated the airport the curious mind in they could not sit there and I slipped through the door and run into the road to get to better games of what was at me I saw Johnny's stones branches whatever he could find they place on the airstrip to create a blockade by now the entire island knew what was happening and the crowd was growing larger persons wanted to be a part of the movement they had taken over the police station locked down the Revenue Office other businesses closed and disrupted the telecommunication system after shutting down the airport five rebels left the island and traveled to Palm Island by boots there was a small sandy airstrip there so they traveled a an effort to shut that down as well Palm Island being so close to Union Island by the time they tried docking at the jetty the owner of Hamelin opened fire and of course fire was returned but to avoid casualty the abortive that mission and headed to carry a crew instead from where I stood only my neighbor's porch I saw a small Commission on the airstrip this is later the D which involve officers from the mainland a local engineer got shot and killed during that ordeal and as his body lay on the airstrip my little heart palpitates in the background I heard my mother calling my name frantically to get us inside because but by this time everything was peaceful before now I she was now scared burn shouts was misheard she locked down the house and we pulled the curtains minutes later knocks on the door frantic knocks on the door as she opened up the neighbor came running needing help why just to cut the locks on his hairs four-inch locks he heard that they were looking for us thus and to avoid being arrested he begged please let me have scissors let me cut these she couldn't find it we were scared but in a desperate attempt to assist him she broke a bottle and used the sharp edges to remove the cuts from his hair moments later boots were heard in the yard and my little heart was beating as I peeped through the holes of a wooden house and officers were seen in the gutter I was scared but that was the making of this research it was that experience so now that I've laid the foundation I wanna I wanna know tell you about the plight of the Union Island people and what led them to react in such a way and how that reaction formed the impetus for the forming of the regional security system one might ask why were the Yunnan island people so angry in 1978 the CCC held a number of consultations and in the Grenadines particularly to find out to hear the pit to give the people a voice or to hear the concerns a report was presented to the Prime Minister the premier at the the Prime Minister world premiere at the time sorry mr. Kato our lawyer was contracted to investigate the claims of the Grenadines people and nothing was done this great neglect of the Union Island community prepare them to react they couldn't take it any more it was an utter frustration to compound an already festering situation the Labour Party led by Milton key to form the new government on the 5th of December creating a wave of mental illness for the Grenadines and in an island also cater our schedule to share sway in his new cabinet on the 7th when you received what should we call fake news he heard that over 100 and westerman take over Union island in heard there was an unrest on Palm Island he also heard there was a planned coup on victory and to make matters worse he added that there was a frantic over on the mainland I can't imagine what Quito is feeling only got that news that I'm sure of what to make of all the information he made three origin requests to Barbados to the UK to Britain and to the USA for immediate military system town Adams the Prime Minister of Barbados was the first to respond with a sense of urgency sending his sugar hoppy recruits as double referred to them in his song boots to servants on within hours of the kid of Peters request the Belgian troops were left on the mainland to help maintain law and order on the mainland as a state of emergency was declared and a dusk-to-dawn curfew while senior officers from the mainland made a way to Union Island time Adams action give rise to much heated debate locally and regionally he was heavily criticized by errorbar his political opponent and leader and leaders across the region for interfering in a not be referred to as in Vincennes domestic affair Boyle accused Adams of usurping authority and setting a dangerous precedent the others knew something had to be done and plan to overthrow the government on the 31st of December 1979 for a secession it was our union Island on the our control on the night of Thursday the 6th of December a regular trip to calico which was done several times before turned into a tragedy with two on board that night one survived when young man Leominster lost his life and Lennox been the Charles who had later learned that the leader of the uprising it was owing to his militant and seafaring experience that caused him to survive that night Binda met with Camila Adams and others to put an emergency plot in place to take over the following morning with fur that Linden's that investigation would see them being arrested which would effected the ultimate revolution plan in order to execute the emergency plan guns were needed and in one place they were sure to find guns at such ungodly or from the close ally in Carioca Edwin fries better known as steel they refer to him as commander steel from the PR account to Minnesota carrier could at nights to receive weapons while the others plot the takeover for the next week these were the name of the seven rebels one of member Charles the leader camilo Adams Peter Regis luta BB Jerry Williams Rajic Ramage Godwin Harvey these brave men created a paradigm shift in the region calling into question regional security and governance they range between the age of 15 and 24 a small island with a population of just under 2,000 people at the time made a courageous evolve or into the voluntary of seven illogical young men the one sure thing is that the uprising was inevitable their efforts were fueled by the PRA commander a trained seal who supported by the landing of ammunition and guns and the elders of the Union Island community commander Steele sort of five rebels of voting arrest on kérékou later that Friday morning when he intervened as they visited from hammering on the the following day which was the Saturday when it could be an associate of the leader of the uprising received him along with four others three others sorry where they were held here in Grenada and later extradited to st. Vincent's in January of 1980 a precedent for regional security cooperation was set in 1979 after boomba and his fellow rebels seized union island despite only for a few hours the impact was far-reaching the virtual stability characterizing the West Minister democracies in the common-law Caribbean began to disintegrate in the late 1960s and 70s after the islands started gaining their independence Britain already sensitive to charges that it had abandon its former colonies was happy to sail a volte into the region to make recommendation for joint coastguard facilities with the US and to knit together a small island to put together the small smaller island forces these diplomatic discussions given to the forming of the regional security system time Adams respond to the Union Island of rising from the impetus for the creation of the regional security system his actions are the conversations ensued paved the way for open consideration for the RSS according to Tom Adams quote military assistance to st. Vincent ought to be regarded as a watershed in the region because for the first time one of these islands has looked to 1/4 of its own for help the RSS was voted in 1982 as an international agreement between five cable islands Antigua Barbuda Dominica Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Barbados for natural assistance on requests for the defence and security of the Eastern Caribbean which port from Britain and the USA circuits nervous and good either later joined in 83 and 85 respectively the RSS forces played a very important role and when the same forces in Grenada during the intervention operation in in 1983 there was assisted in the 1990 queen trinidad and they played a great role in disaster relief efforts in the region and also in marijuana eradication exercises since their inception the uprising saw 47 civilians being arrested along with the seven levels eleven of whom are women and they were tied up like animals as you can see in that picture and taken to the mainland this is just a picture of the RSS and and and what they do this so this is a picture of them in Grenada this is just a picture depicting how horrible the the rest of men were treated despite the fact that all of them were not involved in the enterprising they were arrested most of them were arrested just based on their hairstyle only affiliation this is a picture of the lead of the uprising lenoks boom bah charles permit me one minute please that we just share if you decide from the mighty Gaby regarding the Union Island uprising and Tom Adams intervention but it together peppers between what alone [Applause] my life thank you [Applause] just give me half a minute it's imperative that I do this and since last night I've been feeling very deeply in my spirit that I need to do this and yesterday was reiterated the importance of archiving all of this and my research on the Union Island uprising was turned out of the Father when I went to our librarian our archive that the information was very defragmented and you know a lot credibility and I thought it was important for me to pursue this so that it could be properly documented for the generation to come and so what you do here I know the importance of it and I wanted to do stopped the pledge of a folder to archive all of this and I will try to do a few dollars I hope that everyone here will follow before you leave contribute something unless that reformed so that this completely preserved for the generations to come [Applause] Oh personal test open thank you so good morning to everyone good morning to everyone very good teacher so that's whatever owner here I want to thank dr. grenade and the organizers of this conference it is a pleasure to be here my topic today is regionalism and revolution the case of CARICOM and the grenada revolution i think i want to say let's give the previous two speakers are round of applause so I think we should have confidence after today that st. Vincent and the Grenadines as well as we later have potential female Prime Minister's the last speaker ended with a pledge I am NOT going to put the organizers and dr. grenade on the spot but I think that we there are two major issues that we have to deal with in Veneto one communitive a conference like this we really should have a resolution to have March 13th at Thanksgiving Day and erase or to the 25th as any Thanksgiving Day second I think we need a monument for the soldiers of Orleans we needed soldiers during the invasion of Grenada [Applause] those are two things that I think that an embarrassment right now to our country and our nation I mean I wanted to also thank a few people I think from the Revolutionary days the Institute of further education my colleague the Zara chase from Institute of oil which was which was started by the we need a revolution I would attack my cousin Vincent Roberts I see but a Booker from my former colleague from New York and his wife welcome but a Tennyson and professor hands professor Tennessee I want to say thank you for for being here today so Wendy has that red card that I really do not want to see so I try to see how I can you know make my point before then I get a red card now so I look at I give up a lot of conflicts surrounding the Bonita Revolution regionalism revolution and keratin and lessons so since this I'm part of this conference includes so many students I want to say give me a few minutes just dedicated to these young pioneers that they were here with us today let me say thanks for coming it is a pleasure to be here today I want to start by addressing the youths and the young pioneers in attendance I want you to know that you can achieve any goal that you set you must always try and I get today I was born on one of the smallest island in the world a little island called a pity Martinique and I hope you all take a trip to Fiji my think before you finish high school okay I went to put in like the RC school the Leicester RC school in karaoke because my father was a principal so I just followed him boy he took me along then Palmer school then PVC and then the Institute of further education so in Grenada is a state of clerical pity martynuk and Grenada then I'm really the true Binet daeun I think I want to tell you story that I'm also glad that the GPSS students are not here because this is just for the PVC students I went to PVC so and since since we're talking about the era of the revolution I'm going to tell you what happened during this four and a half years PVC dominated intercom we thought we came we dominated soccer or football so by the way the prime minister in those four and a half years went to PVC most of the cabinet was from PVC and and and even the military the top military individuals were from PVC so they do not held in the GD SS boys that I said that today but it is true what happened in those those four years so this what happened is I was I was in PVC at the time and Tom Adams in Viveiros and under the other in Jamaica we're working the currents out to be evil people they didn't believe in God and they were terrible so as a young man you know there's a place in canteen where they were written chairs and you had extra work so I was wondering you know whether I should go and really work with those evil people just to make some extra money so there's a teacher in in PVC called mr. Campbell so Campbell was a serious teacher so he told us the story that them actually stay with me forever mr Turner said he there's a class there's a grand IV panel on the stage and he asked every student in the class would you mind going up to the stage picking the panel and putting it to the other side of this so everything every student said no the panel was too heavy so he got to the last student and the smaller student in the class went up to the grant ivory panel and put it on the side of the stage it was made out of cardboard so that was the moral of the story that always try so so when I got to law to graduate school you know being a PhD submissiveness is impossible but what I do is I remembered mr. Campbell Troy and this paper that I have here today is really some extracts from work that we did over the last three years the 2016 I presented at Cambridge University 2017 at Oxford and again in 2018 at the Cambridge University so never ever let anyone know that you know there's nothing that always remember this you can achieve any goal that you set okay thank you very much first on so that is just for the students when you're sitting at PVC I said that a few years ago not too long ago you know yes sir army so immediately let me get into the paper immediately after the function of CARICOM the integration process became came to a standstill between the certain CARICOM Heads of Government conference that is December of 1975 insane kids and the next summit in 1982 with helpers of almost seven years the integration movement suffered as different loss in importance – member states were able to cooperate on a number of foreign policy issues that there was a marked unwillingness to harmonize the positions in the relations with the superpowers there was an ideological divide within tariqa in addition to the world economic downturn curriculum was established in 1973 at the height of the Cold War within this context foreign policy coordination one of the main objectives of CARICOM by the time we clean problematic the Hardegree of ideological consensus ended with ganas adoption of cooperative socialism the makers proclamation of democratic socialism and grenada revolution in 1979 progressive parties came to power in Grenada Saint Lucia and Dominica in 1979 so the far south side progressive governments in the ad love – caribbean we made us an issue at Dominica Jamaica and Ana given these progressive governments this member states of CARICOM more especially that knowledge as a legal head of government of Benigno the government's insured Grenada we made integrated in the Caribbean community so in a sense these governments were able to insulate and protect my future and the PRV especially with regards to issues that herecome dealt with at the time so Bishop participated in all telecom conferences and affirmed Grenadiers commitment to Caribbean regionalism and the integration process now armed by the early 1980s the reversal occurred in the Caribbean ideological trend and November editing at the conference in Jamaica only the Heads of Government of manator and Diana took part in the third column heads of government given the clear your context it was the logical conflict so in the Green Revolution that almost caused the collapse of CARICOM in the 1982 conference in Jamaica every Sierra Tom Adams and Eugenia has accused most Bishop of being a dictatorship and being a dictator in veneer of human rights violations and try to isolate the PRG and Mars Bishop the Heads of Government conference held in November 1982 was dominated by an attempt to explore clean either from Paragon and guns that its political system was no longer a parliamentary democracy this is at a time when creator was making the greatest economic and social progress in the region I'll get to the political failure of the Revolution in a minute but in terms of the economic model input substitution we must eat what we produce we must export more than we import in other words even to the old vision should be one of self-sufficiency what economists turn an indigenous engine of good that is one of my arguments in everything that I do any research that I do is that we cannot just hold some import these models whether it's from the Soviet Union Russia or the United States or Europe we're unique so we must develop in our country what we call an indigenous engine of growth yesterday one of the most interesting person was but where are some of the projects and past attempt agenda revolution could be repeated today the answer was yes that we must create the atmosphere in the case of voluntarism as the red said it's still happening in some places in Jamaica so so the leadership must also a plan well we prepared and must show genuine interest in the welfare of the people why would we eliminate every vestige of the Green Revolution I think they said we sent the 432 Dominica we must realize that there's nothing communist or capitalist or socialist about a Center for popular education that teach our illiterate adults to read and write yep thank you there is nothing Communists a capitalist of socialists but a local industrial plant that utilize our local resources or language our plans to increase employment and reduce poverty there is making communists capitalists of socialists that officially program that expert first to other Caribbean countries and increase employment energies poverty and I hope that one day we'll be able to realize Mars bishops dream of exporting its Milo to the rest of the world one day during the middle fearful and the u.s. invasion of Grenada Kaioken appeared to be on the big of this integration by Belize prime minister to Madame reported that the heads of government will reconsider the unanimity unanimity rule as well as qualifications for member states based on democratic qualifications what he referred to as Kerry come true so how many lessons in the Caribbean ideological conflicts among Caribbean leaders also contributed to the collapse of the West Indian Federation nom-a-nom me in Jamaica and the opinions in Trinidad and Tobago different ideologically on the further structure they wanted to see created not a manly narrative Fabian socialists and political leaders in Jamaica adopted a position by in support of state rights on the other hand at Williams and the political leaders in Finland and Tobago favored the creation of a strong centralized federal system based on ideological grounds and as we know it William said one from ten is not I'm not sure how many of you remember this Jamaica anti Federation party piglets and believe with the words you suck me dry you know and this was used basically to divide the Caribbean and I was receiving today I was in Trinidad I think in 2015 giving a lecture on really on the the same idea of the importance of regional integration for for for the Caribbean and at the same time one of my main research topic is that not only do we need a regional litigation but at the time Trinidad really in its oil boom really should have been the leader in terms of helping didn't the regional education in in the Caribbean that the cylinders also they had a well negative response when I told them that you know Germany did the leadership role in financing those poor Europe in the European community today it was not recent selfishness Germany if they played a vote in in terms of helping the European Union if all these countries were to become successful Germany in ahead would be what economy is called probably exponentially multiply the effect in terms of the German GDP and that's what ended up happening so my whole argument was Trinidad where we should have taken the lead we said that did our Prime Minister say to me that is not the ATM of the Caribbean totally kind of this dividin do this is the type of language so our lessons so the other an analysis point to some lessons the carrion can draw from the Grenada Revolution the economic Martin lobby we heard yesterday was an excellent success and some aspects could be replicated today with the right kind of leadership so that should be a some type of hope in you know improving the economic model I guess in our application to tour countries in terms of the political model than with a colossal failure the Revolution choice to defend itself at the expense of civil liberties and I see molasses there for dr. grenade has you know I've expanded and and this topic in some of her writings in the political realm the tail was wagging the dog basically the paranoia to US imperialism led to you know a political model that obviously Dina did not work for the Grenada Revolution and the Caribbean as a whole anyway missionary process in the Caribbean must return to some form of democratic constitutional real with checks and balances on party government and society as soon as possible there are seven certain questions for reflection and for the research why has regionalism in the Caribbean stagnated in the post Revolutionary era in terms of regional integration I had a handout with I think it's an editorial from being the planner times that supposed to be circulating along where basically some of some of my ideas on where CARICOM and regional integration should should the direction this would take within the Caribbean and I think the Ghana Times did a really good job summarizing those ideas so you might want to take a look at that how can we promote regional cooperation in a region that has experienced intergenerational political man is characterized by the business from the failure of the West Indian a village of West Indian Federation and the acrimony in fighting from the 1983 invasion in Grenada thank you very much for your time so so regarding the human Anantha I have a comment and a question what is the group connected to any movement as you discuss what was going on in Union and I didn't hear any connection to a larger sort of movement at the time so I wanted to I wanted to get what is just individuals operating in a kind of a socio-political vacuum or or was this connected to something larger does that's the question my comment is a rumble I must let you know after I'm professor Collins yesterday mentioned in passing but very powerfully so that that the Gary project was not revolutionary I'm taking license here and I thought deeply about it last night I couldn't sleep with me and you responsible for this co professor Colin Murray I couldn't sleep so but I think she's right you know that that the Gary project was not revolutionary in the sense that it's still happened back to colonialism and the the tenets of colonialism so so some wondering what is a revolutionary project I pick passing that to all everybody yet what is a revolutionary project given given the fact that that we know a few things we know that that the Caribbean has over this idiot United more by a common enemy than by a common project and that and that we tend to be you know doing development by begging and see what you can see had affiliation with Maurice Bishop and Bernard Coard from my interaction with him and from my knowledge you know of reading on Bernard and Bishop I know they share the same ideology but in terms of outside support there was no no collaboration with any major group outside of Union Island these were just seven young men they had their little group in within Union and built from their share the say they were going through the same thing and just you know among themselves rise up so there was no outside grouping support but there is there there has been some affiliation and like my research is still ongoing so there are some missing links because that uprising has a close tie with Grenada and I'm trying to fill in those missing links ladies first I was just wondering my name is Archie I wrote a book my husband about graininess Creole English um early into what is local and its value and I'm looking at all those young ones here and I'm thinking I'm sure this is absolutely to you and yet you do history in school all the time several times a week I'm concerned about archiving as one of the presenters mentioned but I'm really concerned that our histories about slavery it bothers me and I think this is an opportunity to let our educators decision makers know that we are interested in our own history we are interested in our own writers about our own history because you know how they start chan comes when we only read from our colonizers and so on so I'm just sitting here and I'm really touched by the presence of the students and I'm really thinking about what they were thinking about this exercise because they have been cheated out and they have missed so much I want to send a message to CXC and the organisers of original examination you know it is like a political exam you get so much of your grades before you even set the exam that I don't know if it's a true test of one's real ability to be tested but I'm just thinking all these things are as I'm sitting here and I'm saying our students must know our history their history I won't be long lasting my latest but more I wrote and I book with about Grenada some language his friend came to spend a vacation in Grenada with us he's a retired engineer he never knew that France did what it did to Grenada he's retired they don't have it in the history I'm not saying we should mess up our history and lose credibility I'm not saying that I'm just saying that what is important for Grenada is slavery and France doesn't want people to know that they colonize those entry toes hold shooters so this is a rare my thoughts are just swimming swimming swimming every way I just think that something good could come out of this whole exercise then we can reorient our students to start seeing who they are where they came from I learned that somebody John Augustine started lines of London by just being one of a sort of an estate in Grenada that's all eyes of London started I mean I couldn't believe this I was never taught this and I mean me I'm Paul went to school and I appeal to the other you know I don't know anything I think the European history is what we did in IFE a lots we did so my senior but so I'm just I'm just do enough things to think about and I don't have answers for them I'm just throwing them out you know and these young people here I want you to take this take this exercise seriously and do something about what you know and don't use the internet just for Instagram and the memes and so on but you're ready good to see what you find about Grenada because I want to educate my little kids about about the Grenada Revolution the other day and when it saw a couple videos they were shortest mom all this happened here you know so um this is an opportunity for you to change the tide and demand more from your educators and demand more about Grenadiers history to be in your curriculum I just wanna speak to that and really just agree with you on that and not just for this generation of students I mean I don't want to take myself but you know I'm out there now notice anything and just to say that even for those of us who were born to people who were involved directly in the revolutionary process people who took up arms people who were involved in in the literary programs and so on I know this of my father for example but do you think we've ever sat down and had a conversation about what it was what it was like I don't even know I don't even know the words to ask because the sense that I get is that it's something that is so maybe hard to speak about and that is one of the barriers that you know charity begins at home and some of our parents and in in the case of these youngsters some of our grand kind of oils that I think to give us to give us that as well so I think that's one of the things one of the missing pieces is that yes there's the responsibility on the education system but I think some of the responsibilities or our parents and our grandparents they as well just to tell us really what we want to know about our own history okay so that's interesting – you said that's or two things social studies teacher mr. Klein we're there and mr. Blass teach history so to mention the connections you made with your student there and your teacher there's two right there for me and we all know science is the inter college championship mr. Paul Clement and two yes until the sisters are there and how impressed with the presentation that you gave today the pictures show at the end with the guy holding the book by a brunette Cory actually last weekend was doing into research on Instagram actually looking at the Green Revolution hashtag that wasn't where the photos that came up but I had no idea who he was and I thought it was interesting that I read the broken into the review of the book but I couldn't put a face a name to that face so what you just did for me today was literally give me an Enlightenment in terms of how I can use this or what it means in terms of the research that I've been doing so thank you very much that and my sister fern over there you did something that I think I haven't heard yet in terms of how the diaspora influenced the Revolution and how the Revolution in many ways archived and curated by the Diaspora as well and we saw that yesterday and we set up with the a presentation today and in law when you do your presentation we'll see that again so what you did I think not only for us as researchers and academics but also for the students here is assure the possibilities of what we can do right and as you said always try try harder PVC but they're not here next time right yes good morning and thanks to the presenters I think that the quality is really great to the organizers yesterday one occurred and professor Curtin spoke of making their presentations available unfortunately in registering our email addresses were not taking on any contact how do you plan to get that information to us follow up with the other presentations we made available I think the quality of the presentations are such that they should not just be made available to us but question do you intend to produce a document coming out of this conference showing you know what the presentations are it is unfortunate that the students here are limited I think the entire school system should be exposed to these presentations my question to our sister who presented on Union either you in speaking you chose the word intervention rather than envision can you tell what informed that choice bearing in mind that from my experience people of a certain ideological position or a position with regard to the Grenada Revolution and the envision choose one word or the other did you just use a word of convenience or is it a deliberate choice okay yeah she said convenience thank you very much we we prefer the word envision and the United Nations the US the British everybody legally it was an invasion thank you very much okay if I may respond Vincent to your questions to the organizing committee it was an error not to take the emails and but today so I am saying this for the days and offices at the back to ensure that we have at least at registration that includes the email addresses but we have a website that we will learn the precedence from this conference we then multiple things to have the website we of course you want a book papers but we want to start a movement from this not a partisan grouping that provides an election movement a company so my paper this evening Vincent we want to start a movement that could be energized or societies yes but we had made this that's unfunded we will try to ensure we have you know the medium that we use would be accessible to young people for example professor Collins is speech last night I think the Iranians or somebody was saying should be in every school in a form that you can relate to so we are taking down and Norton what we call the deliverables from this conference we already have a hundred eighty dollars and twenty us towards the front for an archives and we want to encourage people to come or mean stuff in a way in Sandy phone is here I would pass this over to him because I am he has been a very efficient finance officer on our committee and we are encouraging you to hope we will include your email addresses and we would on the website upload to the papers the website is we have a final question as we welcome that's cool is that's oh that does makka college so the squirrel carcass one oh yes yes right right right cinmarc secondary this is MacDonald College from such as come st. Patrick's welcome welcome welcome MacDonald College be happy to have you here and they see the principal is here welcome we were doing much doing a idea of presentation for them in March and I'm happy to have you back here now it is quarter past 10:00 we were break for 15 minutes only and I welcome you back to the second plenary of the conference the carbon lift what is left of the carbon lift we have some powerful scholars that would be teasing your intellectual curiosity 10:30 sharp we bucket I wanted by the students we have a University of the West Indies desk ok many one who did not register on entry please register now the schoolchildren rumor you are free you don't need to register but we have our brochures and some of the goodies for the schoolchildren I see you and you we are back so

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