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POLITICAL THEORY – John Rawls

June 5, 2019 at 4:22 pm | Articles | Colt Stanton -

很多人都覺得現代社會有一點 –甚至完全–「不公平」 我們也很難向掌握權力的人們清楚解釋什麼是「正義」 以一種較為理性的方式,而不帶著個人憤怒和苦楚 這正是我們需要約翰·羅爾斯的原因。他是20世紀的美國哲學家,提供了 一個能定義何謂真正的「不公平」的完整理論,以及 我們透過什麼努力能改善不公平。 1921年生於美國馬里蘭州巴爾的摩,羅爾斯 –小名傑克– 年紀輕輕就開始接觸、並回應現代社會的不正義。 小時候,他親眼目睹了美國令人震驚的貧困地區 以及他的兄弟因生病而去世。羅爾斯不自覺地被這些經歷影響 — 也包括可怕的、無法治狀態的第二次世界大戰。 這些都激發了他走向學術,他希望能用思想的力量, 改變他生活的這個不正義的世界。 1971年《正義論》的出版造就了羅爾斯的名聲, 這本著作受到廣泛的閱讀和討論,比爾·柯林頓也稱呼羅爾斯為 20世紀最偉大的政治哲學家,並邀請他定期到白宮晚餐。 這個正義理論究竟向現代社會揭示了什麼呢? 1. 目前的社會運作顯然並不公平。 統計數據全都表明了社會裡強烈的不公平, 那些比較了預期壽命和收入的圖表,全都指向一個 壓倒性的道德原則 但日復一日,我們很可能未能認真看待這樣的不公平, 尤其如果將此跟個人生活做連結。因為有太多人事物告訴我們, 如果我們努力工作、而且懷有野心,我們就能做到 !羅爾斯深切地認知到 所謂的「美國夢」如何滲透到政治體系、並且深入人心 羅爾斯也了解這種想法具有腐蝕性的、令人退化的影響 他是個統計學家,因此知道「白手起家」的故事就整體而言太少發生了, 因而不該被政治理論家太過認真地看待。當然,提到這些故事, 僅是一種聰明的、被設計好的政治詭計,讓有權者得以 迴避那些必須要採取的、由上而下改造社會的任務。 羅爾斯理解到關於不公平、如何改善不公平的辯論, 經常因為一些晦澀的細節、瑣碎的爭執而停滯— 一年年過去,沒有什麼實質的成果。 因此,羅爾斯追求的,是用一個簡單、經濟性的、也頗富爭議的方式,來告訴人們 他們的社會是如何不公平、以及能夠如何改善。 2. 想像如果你不是現在的你。 羅爾斯直覺地理解到社會難以變得更公平的很大原因, 是那些在現有的不公平的體系裡獲益的人們,不願意認真思考一件事: 如果出生在不一樣的背景,情況會如何? 所以他設計了一個實驗— 這是政治思想史上最偉大的思想之一 — 他稱之為 「無知之幕」。 羅爾斯要我們想像:在我們出生之前,我們處在一個有意識的、有智力的狀態, 但是我們完全不知道自己將出生在什麼樣的環境背景中 我們的未來被「無知之幕」籠罩。徘徊於這星球外的高空 — —

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“POLITICAL THEORY – John Rawls”

Yale's Community of Individuals

at 1:57 pm | Articles | Colt Stanton -

Yale University offers one of the finest undergraduate educational experiences in the world Yale students explore discover and mature in our unique community of individuals if you believe the world can change for the better through leadership and public service you may see yourself here among friends this university is so old so respected but

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“Yale's Community of Individuals”

Dr. Karen Mapp's 3 Prerequisites of Effective Family and Community Engagement

at 6:35 am | Articles | Colt Stanton -

so I thought a lot about sort of the three essential pieces that I think are move family and community engagement forward sort of what practitioners educators policymakers all of us need to be thinking about and so the first thing is that we've got to understand that the commitment to family engagement has got

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“Dr. Karen Mapp's 3 Prerequisites of Effective Family and Community Engagement”

How I became an activist through FGM | Isatu Barry | TEDxColumbus

at 12:29 am | Articles | Colt Stanton -

you sixteen years ago I was circumcised I don't recall anything from you experience but the fact remains that on that day a crucial part of me was cut and thrown away FGM female genital mutilation it was a procedure that involves the partial a complete removal of the female genitalia for non-medical reasons it

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“How I became an activist through FGM | Isatu Barry | TEDxColumbus”

MSNBC's Harris-Perry Doubles Down on Communist Ads: Fox News Women Respond

at 6:34 pm | Articles | Colt Stanton -

Americans will always want some level of inequality because it's a representation of meritocracy people who work hard and sacrifice and save their money and make major contributions we think that they should earn a little more and they should they should have more resources and that's fine but we also however have to have

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“MSNBC's Harris-Perry Doubles Down on Communist Ads: Fox News Women Respond”

Place-Based Learning: Connecting Kids to Their Community

at 5:35 pm | Articles | Colt Stanton -

>>Michael: Is there more than oneway to figure out how big an acre is? >>Students: Yes. >>Michael: Could it be two feet wide? >>Student: Uh-huh. >>Michael: Right, it's goingto be really long, right. >>Brent: What works for student learningis engaging kids with their environment. It could be about the local culture. It could be about

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“Place-Based Learning: Connecting Kids to Their Community”