so hello everyone this is Michelle Shah I secured all in the 963 in the Civil Services Examination to some 18 interestingly I got 329 in sociology optional which is the highest ole India so I was able to do that with my own self study so I have come you know I'm joining this lecture to you know give some idea on how to prepare the social issues which is a gs1 paper in Soloff which comes in ts1 syllabus how to prepare for these upcoming means one should know that tears the social is so gs1 is primarily means focused hardly questions comes in means on directly through data topic however one should also know that unlike World XI which has the from with that number of questions has drastically decreased and came to zero into an 18 means a socialist source on the other hand has still been able to you know we mean you know the same number of question for example still three around three question you would be able to do well if you are able to if you finish the social issues there you know social issues topic at any cost most of the thing that you should know is it is mostly current oriented so theory is still you should be very very aware with the definition and everything which I would be covering in the upcoming lectures throughout so that you are able to write it really good answer so let's move to the first topic of our discussion and that is how to prepare for solutions for means so let me move to the slide okay so I am talking about the steps to prepare for the what we call and it's talking about the steps on how you should be going ahead when it comes to social issues for means and for that okay what for that and one should know that the previous your question is very important okay you should learn the previous European question at any cost so I will suggest you go through website of the previously makes you available or you can go for topic wise previous your paper from the market once you go through the paper you would be able to understand what kind of questions come and then I will suggest you freeze the book list one of the very important thing that I always suggest is that freezing your book lists freezing the book list is pretty important because one you should not add anything to with the list or neither you should decrease anything in my opinion you know you could go with any of the source that it's available in the market even in the upcoming days all the 10 lectures that I'm going to take I am going to cover the basic of social issues thoroughly so you can make notes as well as use a PPT even to move ahead with so but anyway I would say that you can go with any of the source that you like the most then one of the thing that I have suggest when it comes to no speaking is that please read and revise the note without any cook list at your ease any source that you are going for initially and do know what actually you know unless and until you haven't read it again do not go for noise making otherwise the no suit it pretty bulky in the floor suit yourself so that is the pro tip that I am going to keep you read and reread the source that you are going to use and then go for new speaking so that you'll know separately less funky in that even in no smoothing the previous your questions would help you a lot because the previous your question will let you you know understand which topics are in which form actually the question might be asked so and when it all these things are done I would suggest to you to keep a tab on the current place okay when it comes to come current affairs I would like to give you an example okay so current affairs okay so few days ago a few guys have been reading the Hindu so you must have learned that you know you must have come across an article which reported about the mob lynching that was happening all over India incidentally you know most important after the incident of malohkeh pal das and of Egypt from the assembly whether you know what we called and this thing happen actually so in that respect I would like to you know code the current affairs you know I mean the report that was in Hindu so basically the him that the newspaper reported that there were 23 such incidents of mob lynching that happened across the span of 3 few of the notable data that we which we could pool in the social issued answer that you'd be writing are such as 17 out of the 23 where from marginalized section and majority of them them where migrants and these things usually happen in border areas because there there is a you know lack of cooperation between the two police forces on the state police forces on both the sides so this few data's which are if you are able to recollect and if you are able to use in your you know incorporate your answer then it would look super and you will be able to score as many marks as possible you know in this three question that you might be getting in the upcoming needs to shine and into so and I would like to you know this small you know a topic about how to prepare social issues I would like to end with this pro tip and after this we will be moving with the first topic of society and that is silent listening feature Safina society will be discussing so the pro tip is that whenever you write a social issue problem please write a technological solution for it so I'm going to give you an example okay there are popular problems they're popular problems such as manual scavenging okay so there has been a scenario in which the robotics team one of the company in Panda code in Bangalore they have developed a robot which is able to clean the series without any help of you know manual scavenging which is pretty much you know I mean you know you should know you know it's a report again I would like to quote a reporter in which most of this report I usually you know take from newspaper and usually scan the knee sweeper for you know reports which I could come across so what I do actually is that you know I will just take a snapshot and very small you know write-up of what the main points of the report a similar report I am going to put again by manual scavenging is such a big problem it's because you know manual scavenging actually you know if we it was a study of the three honey moon by corporation one of the biggest Municipal Corporation of India the silverish workers that we're working there tend to have chronic croix chronic health issues after you know if some period of their you know occupation and most of them used to die prematurely so these are some you know what we call good actually repose which could be cited whenever it comes to or whenever it comes to you know answer writing so let's move ahead to the you know first topic that is the salient features of in your society I would like to say one thing is that true they you know one thing that I would like to say is that whenever you are going through this UPC preparation usually it used to be my scenario that I used to think that I have to either you know find out what objective that question could come from a certain topic that is a films and what means or ended question could come from this topic so with this only two three and you know what we call aim one should go into any source once you don't think of any you know lecture or debate and you know do not look into too much into do not go into too much depth also for able to come up with a means instead of 250 words from the so that you are going with then it is sufficient and if you are able to identify the you know among the option given which is the correct and question answer and when it comes to penance you're done so with this thought process in mind let's move to the first you know topic of society in a society ingenious paper one one should know that I will be ending my lecture with a question previous your question so that one is able to understand how to write question also when it comes to socialism okay I will be solving it life so that you are able to understand and I will also request that I will be giving a framework so at the end of the lecture I would request that please write your answer completely you know in the 250 words and then paste it in the comment I'd be reviewing it and let you know how you have done okay then let's start coming to the you know what are the salient features of inner society the primary salient features of in your society would include one is the are the hierarchy the hierarchy is one of the most what we call the hierarchy you know the system of hierarchy is one of the the system of hierarchy is one of the what we call a prominent feature of in your society the second prominent feature is the notion of purity and pollution third is the concept of Felicity public then is the caste and class social demography in which would be talking about the population aspects and how it is divided into various social classes and then moving ahead family and kinship which still remain one of the salient features in your society and then you would be talking about how in spite of so much of diversity we still have this unity and a notion of single Indian okay so first let me define what is society okay when it comes to the definition of society one should understand a society is made up of individual group of individual and the institution that are existing I would go to the institutions such as marriage such as you know school family all these are institution and how this individual group and institution in crak so basically all this four component end up you know being called a society so let us move up with the first sharing features of in a society that is hierarchy so when it comes to hierarchy let me talk about what are the form in which hierarchy is written in which it is visible the first and foremost of this visible form of hierarchy hierarchy is filled in simple definition means placing one object ever brother so basically it is a vertical arrangement of objects or thing you know and that is called as hierarchy okay so let us see what are the prominent thing in which we could actually you know see hierarchy being existing the first among this is cost when it comes to caste everyone knows that you know if we go with the burner system of caste then there are four burners with each Verna being placed one ever another and one below another and same is when it comes to the classes so everyone would know that the rich and affluent class could form the epics and the working class or the poor would form the bottom of higher art okay so the hierarchy si you know distinct you know what we call vertical placement is not only visible in caste and class if you look closely it would be visible in families too for example when we see it is a usual thing that it's a patriarchy you know driven society in India so male member would always be above the female member incomes in the families also so there would be you know most of the decision-making power most of the what we call property you know in in terms of inheritance removable movable property even when it comes to violence you know the people who are at the lower you know lower in hierarchy face greater amount of violence and that is where you could see how gender the family is you know and you could actually see the gender you know the girl or the woman being at the other hand of being receiving the violence so that is how hierarchy you know actually manifest it you know it actually tells how you know what we call how is the power being shared if a person is placed above in hierarchy she would be always having a greater you know what we call a greater amount of what we call the greater amount of food greater among a greater amount of what we call a greater amount when it whenever it comes to you know whenever a person is placed above in a hierarchy his bound to have greater control over distant making greater control over how power is being shared and greater control over what decision is being imposed on the people who are placed below and let's move to one of the interesting fact when it comes to business and at this reason because you know interestingly when we talk about you know society which are pretty much developed which are the first world countries which we say the existence of hierarchy is quite not known you know a person who is you know is working in white color job irrespective of his income would be similarly placed to other person who is working in a different white-collar job or in spite of you know differences in money asset or their whatever they are holding however when it comes to India we find distinct you know what we call a pronouncement of hierarchy which is being reflected because the cast has occupation it with SOF Business Association so usually the business you know the land holding caste and you know they were able to monopolize the you know the business which now you know it's more of the rich and affluent which are more of the managerial question as a result of which the hierarchy is still you know is being even projected in business and addresses in to so you could see how we address you know we could be addressing someone as Babu and someone as you know like the very various you know synonyms or various prefix that you utilize you know for addressing a person in a business you know community itself would showcase and okay who he is and how well he is placed in the hierarchy so I believe with respect to hierarchy I have talked about three prominent places where it has been you know pronounced visible I would suggested you know to you know what we call people were clearing from the viewers to come up with other areas where they actually could see this manifestation of hierarchy which I explained as people or thing being placed one below other smooth to the second shyam features of what we call in the society and it is the notion of purity and polishing so let me first define what I mean by purity and what I mean by polishing okay although as I say it is in motion by notion in me it means it saw something which actually doesn't exist however it is being held so in our mind so let's say what is purity so basically by purity it means something that could be you know access pretty easily something does not have it taboo associated with it however if things are polluted you either you know you are either forbidden or you try to avoid not to you know come in attachment with it or you are going to you know perform some ritual whenever you come in contact with anything that is considered polluted okay so that is what I say about the definition of purity and pollution these are idea in which people or thing are considered as unholy unethical or something that has been you know avoided because of the taboo that is associated with it so let's talk about the types of this purity and polishing there are two main types one is the permanent notion and second is the temporary so when it comes to the permanent notion of purity and pollution one should know that you know when it comes to the permanent notion it is more propounded in the caste system in India the people who are you know of the upper caste are considered more pure and when it comes to the people who are you know who are involved in occupation which is considered you know impure such as you know cleaning the sewers and everything are considered of you know permanently impure okay so that is the notion of purity and pure pollution actually determines how the interaction is going to between those two community placed okay so and a disclaimer here I do not you know what we call a deer or neither I you know what because support any of such notion and as a guy literally in the formation of it one India and egalitarian society and we especially as a civil servant spen must believe in article 14 and article 15 which explicitly says that we should not make a distinction between any person based on caste creed race language or any of this the moving ahead with respect to the disclaimer let's talk about how this notion of purity and pollution okay so yes it's something that is remain is temporary you know purity and function so you must have recalled that there had been scenario in your home in which someone if if there is a death in the family so you have to perform some rituals after some 13 days or something so that you actually become you know what because you are free of that you know impurity that has been attached to you due to the event that has occurred in your home so that actually is the you know example of what we call temporary impurity which is you know just due to an event and it can be washed off coming to the second popular notion and that is very important you know just few days ago you know what there was a world man cycle day was celebrated even when it comes to the period among women there either associated with temporary you know pollution at that moment interestingly I'd like to put a few of some of the prominent example of stir you know with respect to this because it has been a burning topic throughout the world first among this is that you know is the instance in Nepal there you know what we call woman during their periods were forced to you know be in seclusion you know stay in a hut which does not has amenities of clean water or food and there were instances where woman have died in during this period and hence for the Nepal government has come up with law which actually penalizes this you know entire ritual and then again you know if I would like to cite an instance mooster and it you know just a background I belong to the state of inertia Pradesh which is in Northeast and you know the Northeast is being primarily known for the you know high standard of social interaction you know institution what we call a tooth that has been built up there there I would like to talk about the Ambu bocce festival which is being you know what we call celebrated which actually celebrates the menstruation period of goddess Komaki which is a you know which is of the suck ppth this one is consider on the holy site to visit when it comes to you know the religion of Hinduism so that actually shows that you know what we considered you know with time as it the MU is actually is actually quite natural it has been associated with divine and now it is being celebrated also so that is something that we could actually that actually gives a strong message that we should not have any motion that is associated with the temporary notion of pollution when it comes to menstruating women so with this let's move ahead with a gender connotation so what why do i why i wanted to add the gender connotation of the purity and pollution is because male and female gender are being you know what we call are impacted by this motion differently many of the time when a meal under you know is attached to pollution it is of the form of temporary on the other hand when it comes to women it is of the nature of the permanent that could be seen when we see though you know marriage rituals that is being associated a upper caste men can marry a lower caste woman without getting polluted but the vice versa doesn't exist if the upper caste woman that's so you'd be considered permanently polluted so that shows how you know impact of your notion of purity and pollution is different when it comes to gender let's talk more about this motion when it comes to ruler versus urban in ruler household I would like to talk about the villages village the even the setting of the villages so that the innermost circle mostly would be occupied with the land building and thus upper caste and then as we move outside the concentric circle and to the fringes near to the forest the people of lower caste and people were considered tribals are usually residing they do not have access to the communities that is in the core of the what we call the city or poor of the sorry the core of the rural areas that actually suits how the people who are considered impure then tend to be at you know on the disadvantaged side of the society so that shows how this notion actually impact the land holding the nature of occupation that a person is involved in so and the chances of you know getting into a good like chances of getting good education there has been instances in the studies by various you know what we call community awareness of what we call institute especially when it comes to rural maharashtra where it has been soon that there was high incidence of anemic you know anaemia when it came to you know people try a you know tribal people who have been living in the outskirts of the ruler india since they are required in the outskirt due to the very notion of purity and pollution they have been you know segregated and they are forced to live in the oracles outer skirts and the government facilities is unable to reach to them so let's talk about how this notion is at manifesting in the urban settlement so of course urban settlement is very difficult one of the thing that actually you know come up in the urban settlement is the is the thing with what we call urban settlement is the anonymity usually when it comes to the urban settlement the people who you know they're who are living there tends to be quite anonymous so they you utilize this you know as it become a you know positive you know notion in which people actually interact without considering what the person cast is so that is something that you know that is being seen in the urban setting so we could say the notion of purity and pollution becomes quite quite fluid and not rigid as in ruler areas when it comes to urban areas so that is a second you know salient feature of in your society again I would request the readers that if they come up with other other manifestation of this notion you can please add this to the comment section let's move to the next challenge of criminal society and that is the caste system okay so car system has been derived from the Portuguese world Casta and which means race or stock so basically caste they know something you know when it comes to the tone it's you know denote something that is biological however if we trace is origin to its present present scenario one come to a conclusion that it is something that has been you know is quite a social manifestation and it is being you know sanctioned through social what because it is been sanctioned with through social control and that's why it's existing in today's India so when it comes to cast a caste system let's talk about what we call let's talk about the origin of cost cast si what we call caste can be you know steady in the form of Poorna or jothee the mention of Varna has been done in the Rig Veda for some time in which it talks about the four main furnace which emerged from different parts of the god Rama and resulting in their different position tasks interestingly all the stars are being placed in hierarchical word vertical hierarchy and that Suzette's hierarchy even you know what we call hierarchy comes into you what we could play even in the caste system okay so that is you know what we call the origin of caste system the if we look if you draw a time line diagram I would like to know that you know in the initially in the early Vedic period you know the notion of caste was fluid and there has been instances of hinds which has been Newton which talks about a carpenter's son being a priest and a priest Sam been a Potter so that actually sold in the early Vedic period at the caste system was fluid and although it was associated with an occupation a person of different generation we're able to choose their occupation of their choice so however when it comes to the later Vedic period we see the consolidation of the caste based you know caste in which it became a heavy retreat and Okemos group of people in which it was the cost was determined by birth rather than the occupation that a person is pursuing so that is something you know if a person although in traditionally if you look at although a Brahmin or for example there was a study in the reeks of rich Sawalha in Purab Banaras you know a sociologists study in which you know it was found that you know committed first of all the rickshaw wallahs belong to three major community in those Muslims and the nipple is and among them also the cast you know among the what we call the rickshaw wallahs ranged from upper caste to lower caste also that's actually sorted you know now also it's going into the fluid nature of cast when it comes to the today's scenarios but moving into that level before moving to that let's talk about the theory associated with the caste system I would like to talk about two main theories and those are more than two main theories and those are first of the immense universe you know theory of caste and second is the louis de menthe theory of basically Eman Srinivas when he talks about consistent it is majorly our so it captures the fluidity that we've seen the today's scenario it sorts at how cast has been dynamic it is not necessarily that the land holding you know society you know group would be always placed upper or you know all those say on org you know what we call in the you know upper caste won't be consuming materials such as what we call non-vegetarian which is considered impure so that MS universe you know in a way was able to you know capture that what we call a fluidity of the fluidity of caste system in India when it comes to the notion of fear when it comes to the notion of when it comes to the notion of human basis when it comes to the notion of human you one talks about human higher articles according to him according to him caste exists at consciousness it's a very wonderful you know it's a wonderful theory actually because you know it's actually you know a combination of with MS Sreenivas and human will be able you be able to you know what we call understand why caste system has prevailed ever since the later Vedic period it's been like you know more than 5000 or around 5,000 years and still the system has existed and that is because you know if we you know basically do one says that whenever there is a deviation from caste system the person feels you know guilty in his mind and he is you know forced to come back to the occupation or the tradition that has been prescribed for a particular caste so okay so for associa you know for a G's student one should understand that if asked how caste system is being reinforced so one can talk then from the mixture of MS universe theory answers given theory one can come into this conclusion that it is due to social control as shrinivas talked about and then due to individual killed or consciousness so these are two things which actually you know at the end rain force the caste system which exist in today's format so let's talk about the today's scenario okay in today's scenario I would like to talk about how one of them you know what we call thing that is how caste and politics actually interact in India this time the general election has not been much on the cost basis that has been the trend however still you know lot of people still you know ask for vote on caste license which is truly not you know what we call Democratic at all however when we talk about the you know the study of iris League Qataris you know who we said popular what we call political theorists when it comes to cast and equality according to him caste needs polity as much as quality needs caste basically today you will have to mobilize number of people and for mobilizing people you need some basis and caste provide that basis and when it comes to you know how mean that is how polity depend upon caste and cast depending on quality is other way around where people you know what we call people mobilize themselves unite themselves on the basis of caste and then ask for demands on the basis of demand in a you know democratic society so basically for emphasizing their demand caste become a basis for mobilizing and uniting the people and then you know that is how caste has depended upon quality and the other way round has also been explained so that is what the one of the salient features of in a society that is caste system the smooth to the other salient feature of inner society and that is the idea of village and village Republic so one should understand that why what is the difference between jeweler and urban areas so in this perspective I would like to talk about what exactly it means ruler so one should know that you know urban areas have fun party a bird alias system urban areas in India according to the census of 2011 forms around 31 percent of form around 31 percentage of population are living in urban so one should know that okay so the census has been it's already been around eight years so one could actually project it by the by 2050 projection we could safely say that around 50% of India would be living in urban areas so all the way it is you know what we call urban areas is still not the less dominant and one could say India is still predominantly ruler so the definition of urban is that you know if we talk about the even though census depletion that is the census down which census down to say is that if the part if the population of an area is more than four thousand plus and then if the seventy five percent of people are involved in other than primary of other than primary form of economy then what we call the place can be called essences down so that is what you know actually could divide you know ruler and urban one could say that ruler area is primarily agriculture-based economy and urban areas is more secondary and tertiary based economy so economy becomes one of the pieces however that is not the only basis one could also talk about the increasing urban density the density is higher and then the you know person-to-person contact is less so all this thing you know a number of factor actually you know here more you know nuclear family are there here more joint family is there you know in cooler areas so basically we could come up with multiple you know what we call difference between ruler and urban areas again it asks for the viewers that please you know make a distinction between ruler areas and urban areas in the comment section below I believe in each and every comment so I would encourage as much participation as possible my dear friends so moving up to the other you know topic that is a socio-economic feature of Indian village basically Indian village is quite you know arranged when it comes to what we call is very well arranged when it comes to what we call economy there is a famous you know notion which is called as the judge money system which forms the you know what we call fundamental of economy in Indian Phillips so when it comes to the what we call judge money system there are two main notion of the you know human manifestation of judge money system one is one is during the rituals and second is in the form of economic exchange so basically when it comes to rituals the person who of the priestly class they are usually the one who would be you know would be providing the services to the people who are paying or providing them something in return in kind for doing the rituals so that is ritual nature's money system when it comes to economic exchange here the people from the lower caste will be providing in cash and kind service to upper caste you know or landholding caste and that is what we call a what we call the economic exchange form of this money system so this two form of jetavana system I believe everyone must have understood I would also increase people to write this definition so that I am able to validate it when I go through the comment section let's move to the third topic that is the village Republic's one of the you know celebrated idea that has been propounded and it was propounded by Charles meticles that you know Indian you know Indian villagers our village republic by which he meant that indian village are quite what we call sovereign on their own they have they are self-sufficient when it comes to economy you know social groups and what we call Etsy commercial changes so basically according to him and Indian River village Republic are small units which are totally independent when it comes to the very next village which is lying in the vicinity although medical first quite true when it comes to the good amount of exchange and especially when we you know see the judge money system that is that it is existing so one could say that yes of course village Republic's might have existed however if we go through the interaction that has been existing between village one on village to which is vicinity or even if it is in faraway you know – there exist quite number of interaction when it comes to interaction of villages so I would say that you know there are several examples you know there could be you know a common market there there could be matrimonial relations there could be rituals or you know what we call MELAS that we call fear that is being you know or what we call celebrated together you know and of course you know if a new king come if the single currency is there then of course you know the entire village would be you know bounded by a single Authority as well as you know if the village is you know it adds at some border so then the zenus become primarily you know more prominent you know what we call prominent – prominent in terms of exchange and this theory of being an independent village republics does not stand totally correct so that is how one could write an opinion based question such as comment whether the idea of village Republic hold to today or not I would encourage the viewers to write this question at the end and I would review them personally okay so let's move to the second next topic and that is the social organization of villages the social organization of villages can be understood if if someone is from social you know it will I have visited village then he would be very much aware you know even in my experience I have seen in which you know as I said the poor would be you know having you know what we call areas owned by land holding caste and then in the vicinity as we move ahead the people from lower caste you know would be residing in the vicinity and then yes of course if there is forest nearby or something then then the tribals would be at nearby them so what happened is that you know it's us it social organization which is called the you know its radial pattern and what we call it's the circular pattern there are other forms of social organization of villages too in which it could be what we call it could be in along a straight line such kind of villages are usually what we call associated with three words you know they are on the back of rivers and then there could be radial where which is you know mostly based on the roux roads that are going through and then there could be you know yeah this could be you know and then this could be Hamlet of settlement in which settlements are pretty much far away so these are prominent you know ways in which houses the social unit of a village is being arranged so as I said it could be hamlet at it could be radio it could be circular or it could be among a linear finish pattern so this fourth prominent kind of social organization do exist okay let's talk about urban life urban life would actually we have already you know quite differentiated between rural versus urban in just five minutes ago so I believe people would be venomous you know already you know might be knowing what exactly Alban like fools and many of you know here's would be from urban area so they pretty much know you know what are the characteristic of life in urban areas so I done Chris the viewers again you know to type the main characteristics of urban life that they have been experiencing okay let's move to the next slides and that is the next salient feature of Indian society and here we are going about we are going to talk about two main topic and first one is demography and second is the demographic dividend which has been much talked about especially with the formation of the new previous and new comment so demographic first of all so we understand understood and said it is structure and nothing else one should not confuse between demography and demographic different so demography is actually the age structure which we could see in the form of pyramid structure that one could see in which even the sex ratio is being shown through separate blocks in which you know the various age group let's say here the mid s group is there here the you know old s is there and then here is the youth stages there so if a graph goes on this on this line it actually shows there is it more you know what we call a distance of people in the middle amid you know if however there is a you know tapering old is and reducing youth to so that actually show that how the demography the population is being arranged and how the age structure of what we call the society is existing so that is what I what we call demography how it is distinct from demographic different so one should understand the demographic distinct it's a window it's a distinct window that actually occurs in the life you know in the what we call population cycle of a nation or a India population cycle of a nation of an or an India and in that you know in that distinct you know cycle in in the single window what happens is that the dependent population who are population who are dependent they reduces and the population who are you know working age they increase it so as a result the the ratio of working is to dependent working is to dependent you know is what we call is or dependent sorry the inverse ratio that dependent to working is quite low so as a result of which you know working population tends to save mood there is high productivity of economy is high they they can purchase more they have more purchasing power so that is something you know if we could understand that you know so that is what is called as demographic dividend because there is high saving this high purchasing and the economy is moving so so one could have actually understand what are the advantage that we kept when demography is going through you know population cycle is going through such a window so that is how you would be you know distinguishing between demographic dividend and demography so demography is the age structure and dividend demographic dividend is the distinct you know what we call advantage that a nation happens to get when its demography on – age structure enters into the favorable window where the depending population is quite less when it comes to the working age so I believe one must be very much clear now with respect to the demography and demographic dividend so please do comment about how we will be able to reap the demographic dividend of India that the currently you know India is boosting to the entire world so I would like to hear mention two important factors also one of the factors is that you know the entire you know age average age of the world has already you know has entered into an itching on the other hand India remains still one of the youngest population in the world so what we could do that's actually so how migration could actually happen in which you know countries where aging population is high such as Japan they are opening up opportunities for you know Indians so as so that they could you know migrate there and you know again as I said the reports we suggest that a person when he migrates from Africa to first one country there happens an increase of 3,000 percent in the wage that he is receiving so that actually stores how migration actually has several benefits so the second fax that I would like to share this that India becomes very distinct when it comes to what we call demography there are you know there is a clear distinction between you know what we call the what the peninsular states such as Tamil Nadu or under Pradesh Tamil Nadu and then Kerala where the age structure is quite similar to the first world countries on the other hand the you know states in the hinterland could be you know I are still you know you know in the young age population they have more of the youngest population so here also it will show how in migration within India could actually make policy very well designed to you know promote in migration for example you know what we call a very mobile form of what we call a very mobile Russian card which is you know can be which can be operated in any state or you know such kind of facilities could actually help the you know migration to occur the you know what we got it with it you know push-pull the hinterland which is bit lacking when it comes to development in equal you know in you know what we call in or what we call near to the development that is existing in the peninsular do you know what we call the what we call the country the states which are near to the Indian Ocean okay so the coastal says mean so that is how okay so I would like to talk about the demography in the Bhagat different a smooth to the next topic and that is some marriage family and kinship so when it comes to the okay so when it comes to the matters family and kills it so lets me talk very briefly about the marriage the marriage is very actually it just it legal you know what we call a legal recognition of the relationship between a person of the different gender and what are the changes that are coming up then yes of course you could talk about the concept of how though you know selection of maybe changing selection of you know what we call the system of dowry or you know how the inter-caste marriage is increasing and the of course the you know the upcoming a you know wave of you know living marriages which has been shown in the movie also in slowcoach if we you know you could just understand that of course these are new trends of marriages in which you know you know it is coming up the next coming to the family again the family as a definition could be considered as a house phone or what we call as a you know unit in which what we call there is a parent and the children we are all living together so India was primarily considered as join family however when we see today that you know what we call the unit chain and major exchanging to quite nuclear format one would this one should know that it still you know there is a notion of functionally joint families in which although the you know what the family could be structurally nuclear how however they will be holding their business their land as a you know joint family so that actually saw how structurally family remains nuclear however functionally it is still real you know is it joint family so and third when it comes to concede consumer basically people who may through you are related with respect to we will either blood relation or due to marriage and consent what are the changes that are coming up so basically mostly the changes are in terms of the interaction the way interaction is happening for example previously one could see that there has been prominent more stronger relation when it comes to the father and son however today the relationship between woman and you know a husband and wife has become more prominent and more you know what we call dominating when it comes to the family and you know it's kind of you know this area what we call it's kind of you know what it was supplementing or even replacing when it comes to the father-son relationship now let's move to the next topic and that the unity in diversity so there has been a popular notion and what everyone we have been celebrating our unity to a greater extent and yes of course India has been united you know to accrete to a wonderful extent when it comes to diversity we have time we have people from diverse race language language religion and whatnot however the unity is at end still let's talk about the three major form in which the unity is attend and that is first is notional the very idea that you know the even when it came to ends in history if you have studied that in history class fine in CRT it is written that even the rulers who have attacked India they have considered India as a single subcontinent as a single you know what we call a single place even though there was no fixed boundary at that time so that source how no stantly also we had together when it comes to physical we are actually saw in the south of Himalayas we are bounded by the in by the Himalayas that actually makes a difference subcontinent but that is something we could consider in the physical you know unity that could be attained and then yes of course in terms of international interactional you know there are you know for example the World Cup discovery volkov has already started you know in the cricket matches there there is a form of cricket nationalism in which you know everyone irrespective of caste creed religion sheer for a one-and-one single nation and that is India so these are three primary format in which we could see you know the idea of unity being manifested okay so let's move to the previous question I would like to end the session with this is the last topic that we'll be discussing in the session so the first question that I actually would be discussing and that the question actually is from 2017 paper the features and I will say the question here's one's basic I guess the spirit of tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times but it has also been playing an important part in Frisian elaborate so basically it says that you know the spirit of tolerance has been interesting since earlier times and now also it has been existing so you know as I said you know how we should write an answer a very good answer and that could be in the format of of course it will always consist of three main important parts and then they they are introduction body and conclusion a protip here is that please frame your introduction inconclusive simultaneously so that you know you are able to make it a very coherent you know what you call answer the invigilator actually just get captured in that very if you know question itself very answer that you have written and he would be avoiding you really good marks for example it's the introduction if I start by quoting Ravindra not take or who has famously say that India is you know is a you know unit united by it has a unity of spirit basically it says the existence of what I say it the no still concept of unity in India so basically there is a invisible spirit which keeps India together so that is purity you know we could talk about in the body ranging from first the Indus Valley Civilisation what we call the Indus Valley Civilisation and as you could see it was a very egalitarian society when it came to the you know the people quite live you know in a similar platform they were placed you know say you know quite equally in economic front as well as they have a single you know what we call what we call a religion or the God their use they used to pray similarly as we move to the Vedic you know times even the Vedic if we consider the are any innovation theory the honest actually you know came in it came in India at the captured you know what we call the dust used and you know they were integrated you know very well by you know what we call the religion getting this diversified for example there were you know emergence of demigods and you know multiple gods which actually you know accommodate it you know God's existing in the tribal you know of the dusk use of or the original you know you know what we call existing so you know people who were actually existing in India so that actually so in the Vedic society had certain degree of integration similarly was the indo-greek in which we could see how you know the integrate people have been you know not only you know say you know they attacked and still they were you know considered as us they were you know various things such as horse in their critical way of you know what we call various you know what we call two things that has been you know taken care you know it has been assimilated and apart from that they have been also assimilated as you know Russia foots you know or maybe you know what we call a in this similar caste structure which are already existing so was the case of you know invasion of Sultanate from which the Mughal and the Muslim you know what we call what we call convert a Muslim you know what we call religion came into and came to impact India in that also you know even if we could see how the caste system that was a quite and Hindu you know what we call existing in the new society turn you know quite was you know even apply it continued when it comes to Muslim society to this is a special case when it comes to Indian Muslim so that is how it so that you know there was some certain degree of you know acceptance here also give and take even though there is you know there are invaders so was the case of you know when it comes to British at the time also British also quite understood the class system how the caste has differently placed and how they could actually you know they actually did to so many anthropological studies so that they are able to have a stronghold on India based on the existing structure that has been already so and let's talk about the today's India so when it comes to today's India I've learned about – you mean you know divided into two main parts the first would be the you know present times of course there you would be mentioning about how mob lynching and patronage is so there you could see this would become though you know what we call our antithesis of the statement that tolerance and exist however there exist you know solid you know solidarity among Indians to and that is manifested which would form the major part of your answer so as to support that statement by saying such as solidarity March is there there is you know how increasing inter caste marriage even the government is so you know taking you know what we call it is social ostracism or caste based distinction very harshly once the common has come up with a law which actually you know punishes social ostracism and then he suffers a people who are you know movie two other areas are willingly learning the native language there that could be the case of people you know of course your friends from South India has come to North India for the coaching and everything the story of Bengal you know there was a of course I mean I could as I say it from Camille's perspective one could quote from the Hindu newspaper or whatever nice River they're studying there was n snippets we say that how the Idol making the Durga Puja which is a festival of Hindu the idols are being prepared by Muslims you know them belong to the Muslim community that actually store there is it a spirit of tolerant that exists between various community that you know is present in India yes of course if you'd add the Constitution the fundamental rice the PSP and the fundamental beauties it would actually just be an very good add-on when it comes to what we call your answer so with the good coming to the conclusion as I said since it was a introduction what we call it in code base conclude introduction you could easily write that you know as said by no means not take over the spirit that actually bind people has been you know multiple facets you could just say how you know tolerance has existed and then yes of course you could end it in conclusion so that has been you know what we call the as I say the producer question has been discard I would be writing the question again in the comment section so that you are able to write the question what we call we are able to what we call write the answer and placed it in the comment it is a request to all the wheels and I will be ribbing it personally so let me talk about the very next you know what we call assessing that I equal helding and that is going to be on life tomorrow 7:00 p.m. and and that is you interviewed be talking about the second topic that is diversity of India thank you and have a nice day

  1. Very helpful guidance in understanding the societal issues..Sir plz upload the question U have asked in the last..Thanks

  2. Whenever any selected candidates mention 'self study', somewhere deep down it eases me. I've not taken any coaching.. didn't find the need to.
    Well awesome video… Vishal sir has always inspired me. Thankyou sir for being precise 🙌🙏

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