HOW TO PREPARE SOCIAL ISSUES-2 by UPSC AIR 63 Vishal Sah.



our status to me hello everyone this is we shall again hello everyone this is we shall again and we would be discussing from where we have left we would be discussing on how to prepare social issues which is one of the prominent topics in gs paper fun last day we discussed about the first topic that is a salient features of society along with it I started on how to prepare for social issues as well one thing that I missed was a proper source that one should follow when it comes to preparing society social issues 40s paper 1 and for that let us move to the to the PPT in which we will be going through on how to prepare for social issues so in the book list I would like to mention the basic book that you need to use is the NCERT class 2 l Indian society it it's quite an exhaustive book to actually cover you could utilize it your knowledge in how you know Jesus or not only in Jesus paper 1 it could be also also utilized in socially social developmental what we call programs and policies which comes in paper GS paper 2 in that way you could utilize NCERT class to a linear society in multiple manner apart from that you could use any value addition booklet or it could be either a vision or Jesus Co and the maze 365 social issue section could also be utilized so as to cover the current affairs part so let's move to today's topic that is the second topic of in your society and that is diversity in India so India is as you know is a well very diverse society we see diversity in our life daily life so let's talk about the prominent sets of diversity that are existing and which could be actually studied when it comes to India though we can actually mention the four prominent sets of diversity and they are race religion race religion and then we have language diversity and then we have caste and culture so these are the prominent diversity that prominent diversity that actually exists not only that there are other kinds of diversity which also could be utilized and apart from that I have added a section on impact on administration of each of the diversity that actually exists in India this official section is to cater to actually understand since we are all appearing for an administrative examination we should understand that while we have been asked to study certain certain what we call we have been asked to study certain topics the topic has been asked so that you are able to make a connection between its application in administration such an your understanding on how certain topics affect our administration could actually help you not only in ethics as well as when you appear for the interview so let's move with the first prominent sets of diversity in India which is race so race first of all can be defined as it's talk it could be either biological or you know when we are having a single ancestor or we tend to move or migrate from certain places so that actually you know our pure stock is referred to as race so there are various racial diversity that has been discussed in the PPT as seen of this classification of racial diversity was provided by dr. BS ruja who was the ex director of anthropological society of India let's talk about the various racial diversity that exists in India the first is the Negritos the negatives are people who are usually found in the South India's as well as the important tribes which actually you know showcase this what we call this racial diversity are Yola as well as scudder the pawneeans one tribals who actually showcase this racial diversity let's move to the second racial diversity that exists in India and that is proto extra-light proto has tried as you could you know what we call you could understand from the name itself these are sectional people who have migrated from Australia as you could knowif if you know that what we call evolution of continents the continental drift Theory initially all the continents we're together and then they started drifting away so migration is a possible you know existing possibility and that's why proto Australia's exists in India as well the areas in which which we find Protoss flights and the tribes actually which are pretty much famous for them includes Beale Mondas Santals so you must be already aware that some tough samples are from primarily present in the 24 Parganas the areas around what we call boggle pool the central rebellion is also one of the famous rebellion which was just before in the first war of independence at is 1857 so let's move to the third type of what we call racial diversity that exists and it is mobilized Namanga lies the area of you know what we call the mongoloid trap H actually you know associated with or have their Asian origin which has they have migrated from areas which includes Mongolia China and Tibet the price of mongoloid racial race are pretty much prominent in areas of North East as well as uttrakhand sick Kim Kazmir and Michelle Pradesh so these are the prominent areas I must mention here that the racial diversity am pretty much focusing on where they are located because one of the pro tip that I always suggest you should do whenever if you are writing an answer it is that you could utilize a map in which you could actually just mark where all this places exist the less to the next racial diversity is the Mediterraneans the materials have been divided into multiple what we call section prominent the three section however if you'd like to know where they are actually found we could say that they are usually found in the south of indian mountains the next are the Nordics the Nordics are the consider as the Vedic Aryans they were the one who actually what we call have been the part of the Aryan migration theory so basically they are prominently found in areas which are what we call from north of India's such as Punjab Haryana Jammu and Kashmir to TRACON and Rajasthan the next racial diversity which exists is the Western practices and these are the people who are actually found in areas of what we call Mumbai the Karnataka Maharashtra I mean and all those as well as Bengal and Gujarat so all this racial diversity I have talked about them as I say the pro tip would be to make a map you could do that right now right away itself in which you draw a map and mark all the areas where particular tribe are found let's move to the important aspects of this lecture and that is why how this actually impact on administration so I as I said I would be discussing on all the types of diversity that exists and what are the administration impact on address reason it would have so basically in terms of an impact it would always be a challenge for administration because more the diversity different kind of challenge and adversity had to face so the first on for most impact on administration or the challenges that actually occur due to multiple racial diversity is forging in as national identity or forging unity as one could actually you know what we call think about is that it is a popular saying that Germany is for Germans French is for in France is for French so basically they belong to a certain sickness a certain race and therefore they have actually form a nation to hear India is known for the racial diversity so forging a national identity based on a single Indian identity becomes a challenge for the government as well as administrator and the next thing that you know another challenge that we could actually talk about is the culturing of administration in this perspective I would like to talk about the Nehru tribal punch seal so basically narrow along with very Elvan has devised this punch seal which is called his tribal pencil to deal with areas which are earlier known as northeastern for entire agency that is nayfeh today nayfeh is divided into natural Pradesh some part of Assam Naga Lane as well so basically this area of nifa was known for his tribe at tribal dominance Nehru came up with a tribal punch seal which was used to deal on how administrator who are posted there from the other parts of the India are should deal with the people who are living there so I would here suggest that a person should go and check about what where the important what we call important pillars the five pillars of genero tribal punch seal and I would request them that they post it in the comment section so that I review it on my own let's move to the next prominent feature of diversity and that is linguistic diversity so when we talk about the diversity in India Indian India is known for you know what we call multiple languages being spoken so here I would like to make a distinction between language and dialect so in terms of dialect there could be million of direct that might be spoken in India however when it comes to languages it becomes limited because languages is are usually the what we call languages have a script along with them on the other hand dialects are popular dialects which do not carry language script with them so as you all know that the Indian the Constitution recognizes 22 language in 22 language one could actually see all these languages when it comes to the currency that is being a currency that is what we called offered of which is in circulation in the market of India so when you look into any of the 2000 note you would be finding that there are 22 languages in which the currency has been written so here I have shown a map of the distribution of Indian languages as you could see the 41% of people around let us say 320 million are speaking Hindi and then we move to them a 19 percent which is Telugu and so on so you could see actually the distribution of Indian languages in the screen itself here I would like to move ahead with one of the important topic when it comes to linguistic diversity this topic is important from Williams perspective as well so this topic is endangered languages so basically UNESCO United Nation are what we call UNESCO is an agency of unite you are UN and actually come up with languages which are critically endangered so basically what happens in India is that the census data is being collected for people who of languages but we for which people are speaking for more than 10,000 basically if the language is not recorded in the census if the people who are speaking them are less than 10,000 so that's why the UNESCO prepared this list and not only UNESCO the Central Institute of Indian languages Mysore is also working under a central scheme called as protection and preservation of endangered languages in India so that they are able to save this languages so basically they have come up with a list of 42 languages please have a look in the internet on what these languages and which respective states do they belong to here I've given some examples of endangered languages and they are Kota in Tamil Nadu and Mara in a nutshell Pradesh so as I said for every topic what impact does it I have a registration we need to have an idea about so be secondly in terms of impact we have certain challenges that an administrator or an administration has to face when there exists a language diversity one of the important example is that as we other government is as government is moving toward mobile application key governance we have this problem in which the application or the webpage that has been created have to be made in Toomer have to be provided in multiple languages if the multiple languages are not present the people who are you know accessing them finds difficulty there was a popular notion even with respect what because there was a popular petition even with respect to Right to Information Act for making the information not only you know Apple for making the information under the Act you know being people being able to apply for information as well as receive application you know the information that they want in the languages in which they you know they have applied so as to give emphasis to the local language there itself another challenge that I would like to mention and and it is quite not noteworthy given the topic of all Indian given the debate around all India judicial services all in their judicial services already have been not what we call have been provided by an amendment on the Constitution however there exists a disagreement of whether on how to implement it one of the major challenges when it comes to implementation of all inner judicial services and it is having a respect having the difference of languages certain high courts of various states have different languages and they tend to cater to the citizen there who are living in the local languages itself if a person who is being selected from an All India level might not be having actually might not be post might be posted in a state where he might not be that knowing the languages so this might actually impede when it comes to or delivery of judgment and especially this would have greater impact when it comes to the lower Judy sherry so that's why this is one side of all India judicial services in which people are thinking about I have a request to the viewers to write about the pro and con of a having an All India judicial services as well in the comment section which I would review latter let's move to the next topic and that is religious diversity so first of all I must say that being an Indian I am very much proud and everyone should be proud for India being the birthplace of major religion in the world India is the birthplace of Hinduism Jainism and Buddhism from it is there is a popular saying that the world was not concurred by Alexander but it was concurred by Buddha the same goes because Buddhism which initiated in India moved and migrated as well as spread too far of regions such as Japan so it has become one of the major religion which is being followed in Southeast Asia as well as forest Asia that is the Japan for example the country of Japan so apart from the birth being the birthplace of major religion not only that multiple religion has been coexisting in India in the society itself you could find a single society a very small society itself having P people who are living with various religion here in the PPT I have shown the religious diversity in India in which Hinduism form around 80% of the population it is followed by the Muslim community and then Christianity sick Jain Buddhists and other religions one should note that the minority status has been provided to religion such as Muslim Christian sick Jain and there are TC and there are special provision mentioned in the Constitution as well as the laws are also made not only that there are special ministry for minority affairs only to provide better facilities or an equitable position for them in the society it has been the vision of the our Constitution fathers prominently Nehru and Ambedkar that we form a society in which all the religions live in equal footing of footing and they are not actually they do not feel like subjugated or you know feel like a secondary citizen and when we see around with respect to them or what we call effort of the administration that has put that the administration has put we could see that the goal is in the process of realization as well as we are moving towards it let's move to the major impact which religious diversity has an administration so the first and foremost at impact or challenges that administration faces due to religious diversity is having social harmony basically there are practices of certain religion or it is being practiced in such a way which might impact the other what we call other religion religious community so to wield the entire society in which multiple religions are sleeving we need to have certain ideas certain innovative measures so as to bring social how many one of the majors that you could easily even quote when it comes to what we call a gs4 paper also is having the elders of respective community enter into discussion so in that way we could actually promote social harmony another way in which social harmony could be promoted it is through sports I missed a topic and that is in the middle and address diversity within religion which I must speak so basically one must know that not only India have religious diversity there exist a diversity within religion itself for example let's take a Hinduism there exist when what we call various sets for example there are West Museum there are Savage am not only sect as we move with respect to rituals various caste has different rituals not only that we if we seen among the most Muslims we have sect for example thus popular sets include SIA and Sunni so similar is the case of all the religion that actually exists within India so we must say that not only we have diverse religion we do have diversity within religion to smooth to the next topic and that is nest form of diversity and that is caste and culture based diversity so basically caste and culture based diversity is pretty much prominent and could be studied together because usually if particular caste is associated with particular culture and rituals so caste exists and it can be studied in two prominent forms and they are Verna and Jackie when we talk about Verna there exist four main burners so that actually source diversity within caste however the actual a distance of caste is mostly in the form of Jackie and we could we could safely assume that they are more than thousand Jackie in India and people of different jeti usually pursue different form of rituals and so on and not only is you know what we call diversity exist in forms of Jackie there exist diversity within caste also a particular community of a particular particular person living a particular caste in South India might not be what we call a following same ritual as of a person of the caste same caste who is living in North India so basically in that perspective I would like to revisit Verna and Jackie because Verna becomes a what we call a social parameter which is applicable to entire of India on the other hand Jackie is quite localized the same Jackie could have different ritual when it when one moves from one region to another so that actually covers up how caste provides diversity and how diversity exists within the cast to the smooth to the main part which is impact on administration so here I would like to talk about the success of developmental program which quite depend upon the caste diversity that exists in India in the recent Williams to say nineteen there came a question on land reforms once you must know that land reforms had a direct correlation on how the caste system was working the landed cast had more the upper caste had more control over land and the aim of land reforms was to provide lands to people who do not have land and they are usually people who are socially excluded and they are from the lower caste so that actually shows that how caste dynamics impact the developmental programs it become a challenge for the administration another prominent challenge that exists when it comes to cast it is the demand for reservation due to the stagnation in agriculture due to stagnation of income and there due to the limited number of common jobs as well as their lucrative nests from certain caste and sex and have started for asserting for reservation so not the very demand of reservation is not a unde mo is not considered under democratic however the way it is asserted for example in forms of bunt or in the form of damage to public property does not resonate in line with the fundamental duty that has been prescribed for citizen one must know and I must emphasize in this particular class that we must have respect for public property because it exists for the public interest and it is for the utilization of all and damaging public property is an insult to the national nation and must must observed from such kind of activities let's move to the next topic and that is other kinds of diversity so as I said there are four prominent threats of threats or form of diversity that exists in India which we'll talk about in the previous slides however there are just other kind of diversity too for the views I would like to request that please if you could come up with other forms of diversity which you could see around please mention them in the comment section I would review them personally so as I said there exist other kinds of diversity if we look at the geographical diversity they exist there exist a diversity when it comes to the landforms we have high Himalayas when it comes to the north and we have plain at coastal plains and what we call we have Sun Durban Delta's which are pretty much near along the same level of sea not only that we have deserts we have mangroves we at the same time we have what we call fold mountains we have we have what we call fault mountain so in that perspective when we talk about geography of India is a very diverse as well as very gifted when it comes to geographical diversity not only that we could observe around we could see how food habits as well as clothing the changes so basically it's so kissed the diversity that exists in India is talked about the one of the important thing again and that is how it impact on administration let me talk about the what we call from about my state that is a natural Pradesh and I must say that that is one of the region that pushes me to work and join the civil services I would like to talk about the building of a bridge in the river see on reverse young is known is the tributary of Yarlung Tsangpo which starts from China or which starts from Tibet and goes to China and then enters India from namja Barbra so basically from a cliff in namche Ababa so basically the government of India the government of ownership for this started the exercise of bridge building over the river Shyam to connect to places which are known as head with a posse guard which is the headquarter Visteon district and then mabel which exists on the other side of diversion basically what happened is that the young river since it is coming from certain great height it already is turbulent and on the same hand there is high what we call a high amount of precipitation that actually increases the turbulence II and due to India China relation not being that good the information sharing or the dam building has impacted the Siong flow and most of the time whenever we the government has taken the Brist process of bridge building it actually used to collapse due to the changes in water flow in the reverse eeeh I must say that in this I would like to share one of the thing that today thankfully the bridge has been built it is a very one more than a kilometer long bridge and there actually existed play around 10 feet long which names around 100 in people who have you know what lost their life in the process of building this bridge so basically it soars you know what we call how government actually you know the areas it takes some developmental projects in areas where private sector would actually just sigh away so that actually soars you know and you are part of the government you could actually work for the public interest you could impact the masses and that is something that has actually pushed me to work and be a you prepare and be part of the civil services let's move it to another chain example of challenge to administration that has been faced so let me talk about this case of shuttle square in which there was a tribal community which tend to have a very different form of footing have due to which there was low intake of iron dude and there that led to high incidence of anaemia in those in that tribal community for that the government has what we call come up with the idea of Golden Rice which would actually quite be quite helpful to those community in the chatons curve so then that actually say a you know as now as we you know as we move ahead to the previous question I would like to give a recap in which we have talked about kinds of diversity in India the prom for prominent kinds of diversity and then we have moved ahead to the other kinds of diversity along with it I have also talked about its impact on administration the impact on administration of each kind of diversity has been thought only and has been discussed in the lecture only so that you are able to relate it to actual question is being asked not only in paper 1 GS paper one of GS social issues you could also be able to solve what we call challenges that are being or case study that is being asked when it comes to GS paper 4 so in that way we have covered the kinds of diversity that exists in India in very much detail that smooth ride – the most important part of the section of this what we call this lecture and that is previous question I must say that and I must say I am repeating it from the yesterday lecture that when we study let it be any source we must Fi as it may you know s parent have two things in mind the first thing that one needs to know is that he must or she must be able to identify whether this content is relevant to brilliance or whether this content is relevant to means there could be a Content which would be simultaneously relevant to both problems and means so you must understand that in what format the question could be asked so one example could be let us say Indian Ocean mocking of in the islands in Indian Ocean from north to south could be a possible Williams question on the other hand the security scenario the question security scenario as well as the security scenario in Indian Ocean could be a Maine's perspective question so in that way if you are able to identify I believe your preparation is quite on the perfect direction because in that in that way you would be able to identify and you would be able to make the maximum out of any course or any source that you undertake let's have with this thought in mind let's move to the previous question and that is in the context of diversity of India can it be said that regions form cultural unit rather than the states give regions with examples for your viewpoint so basically if you could study and you could look into this question I would like to talk about how to answer one once a question has been put to you if you are not practicing it in your home you given ample amount of time however you must know that when you sit down and write it in the examination hall you actually get around 8 or 8 and 1/2 minutes to actually think and write the answer so if you are able to you know understand because this Gaussian liquid discussion would be the part of the all the upcoming lecture that I would be taking here so that you are able to understand that how to write a good answer not only on social issues also of GS so in this first you should understand that why this question is asked one of them very if you are able to understand then you could actually be able to come up with a very good introduction as well as conclusion if you could so basically diversity is something that is always being celebrated if you could remember remember every year there is a there is a jockey in 26th January which actually showcase the diversity of India so when a question comes from diversity of India you should be very much actually prepared because not only it is part of the static services syllabus but also it is one of the one of the happenings one of the current events that actually occurred most of the time in India so that actually answer why this question might have asked so let's then move ahead to the direction element what actually direction has been asked in the question there are various forms of directions such as discuss comment critical evaluate and so on in this what we call in this what in this question it is pretty much straight forward in which it is asked you your viewpoint and you have to substantiate with your X check examples so in my opinion since it was a 10 marks 10 marker question once you directly hit the bull's eye you must start with in your introduction itself you must give an idea that whether you are – whether you are with the statement or without let me talk about my answer in which I was I supported this what we call idea that is a statement that has been given in the exam and it actually is true so I might have started in that way that you know the diversity of India is something that is well recognized from race to caste to religion to linguistic and of course culture become an important facet of it in which if you try to understand me you'd be we would be finding out various examples which has been discussed so in that way I would be you know substantiating giving a space for a you know substance in substantiating my introduction with examples in the body which forms a main part let me talk about two prominent example and I would request the viewers to write other forms of example that we could actually come up so two prominent examples that we could actually share is the similarity of culture when it comes to state adjoining States you know the regions of adjoining state for example when we talk about Eastern yupi and Bihar there are more overlap there is more of an overlapping of culture however when it comes to what we call a eastern and western Europe or Eastern and Western yupi that is not the case so that you could understand it you could easily mentioned what are the cultural parameter set on the on the basis of which I am saying so for example it could be food habit for example it could be tracing pattern which are similar when it comes to a joining a state and especially the area of what we call Eastern yupi and Bihar a similar we could also come up with other areas for example there are areas of Karnataka which are adjoining to the state of Telangana and those areas have pretty much similar in terms of culture so is the case of other states too so here you could actually see that regions which are not forming in a state however they are actually forming cultural units let's move for another prominent example in which I would like to quote the study of National Sample Survey organization NSSO can't you know conduct multiple rounds of sample survey all over the India and it takes sample size in this once must know that when it to sample sample size of NSSO it doesn't go with state as a single unit it actually go with a region state which is a cultural unit which is a smaller unit than the actual existing state so that actually souls that not only we as a student or we as a aspirant is able to realize that cultural units are more prominent you know regions as cultural unit are more prominent there rather than States even the government organization also recognizes this fact and try to do so as to come up with better reliable data it actually utilizes region unit as a cultural unit rather than the entire state itself as I said you could come up with more multiple examples and I request the viewers to add those examples at the end of the lecture at the in the comment section and then as I said in the previous pair you know lecture as well you have to write introduction and conclusion at the same time since we started with you know what we call a affirmative of the statement that has been given the conclusion could just summarize that you know the above examples so case that what we call cultural the region's form cultural units than rather than States so in with that I would like to end the lecture for today tomorrow we will be meeting again for the same time at 7 p.m. for the next and very important topic of inner society and that is role of women and women organization till then have a nice day could take




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