4. A Northern World View: Yankee Society, Antislavery Ideology and the Abolition Movement



the other day I laid well in part I laid a list of pro-slavery arguments on you and a lot of quotations to give you a sense of the depth and breadth of pro-slavery ideology I didn't want to leave that entirely without tying up a knot or two just consider this as a sense of the scale of pro-slavery writing I want anybody to think that when slaveholding politicians when the planter elite of the American South begins to organize toward at least toward some kind of separation and secession over this slave Society they want to protect they are reading hundreds and hundreds of pages about their system in 1855 an anthology of pro-slavery writings was published in the south there was about four hundred and fifty pages long in 1860 that anthology was updated particularly with the works of George Fitzhugh into a 900-page volume which was really in most ways only excerpts of pro-slavery writing and it was a work on the desks of most secessionist I also didn't want to leave you thinking this was all about abstract ideology one of the best descriptions I've ever read of why slavery persisted of why people defended it and why people went to war for it came before the war in 1857 in a speech by the African American woman novelist writer poet Frances Helen watkins Harper and in 1850 anti-slavery speech she said among other things this conclusion in fact she's answering the question now why has slavery boomed and persisted and grows still and this is in the wake of the Dred Scott decision ask Marilyn she says with her ten thousand with her tens of thousands of slaves if she is not prepared for freedom and hear her answer I help supply the couple's gangs to the south ask Virginia with her hundreds of thousands of slaves if she is not weary with her merchandise at blood and anxious to shake the gory traffic from her hands and hear her reply though fertility has covered my soul this is Virginia speaking though I hold in my hand a wealth of water power enough to turn the spindles to clothe the world yet one of my chief staples has been the sons and daughters I sent to the human markets as farther south and all the cotton growing states chime in we have need of fresh supplies to fill the ranks of those whose lives have gone out and unrequited toil and our distant plantations a hundred thousand newborn babies are annually added to the victims of slavery set rent Francis L and Watkins Harper twenty thousand lives are annually sacrificed on the plantations of the South such a site should send a thrill of horror through the nerves of civilization and until the heart of humanity to lofty deeds so it might if men had not found out and hears her phrase worth remembering a fearful alchemy by which this blood can be transformed into gold instead of listening to the cry of agony they listened to the ring of dollars and stooped down and pick up the coins a fearful alchemy that's a useful definition of slavery why did inhumane institution course not everybody who defended who thought it was inhumane but why did that systems survive persist and grow because it was so damned profitable last time I began with Alexander H Stephens famous cornerstone speech in 1861 famous passage by the vice-president the Confederacy declaring slavery the cornerstone of the Confederate movement we go north today we're going to look largely at the nature of northern society we're going to look to some extent today and mostly next Tuesday at the roots and origins of an anti-slavery ideology of growing anti-slavery ideology and its many layered forms but I want to begin today with another passage from the war years and ask now from a northern point of view how do we get to Uriah Parmelee now there's a nineteenth-century name for you nobody's named Uriah anymore you know any Uriah's Uriah Parmelee was a kid who grew up on a Connecticut farm the best I've been able to determine his family was part of this market revolution they ended up moving to a small town we're no longer engaged in subsistence agriculture if his parents had or his grandparents and by means I don't entirely understand Uriah Parmelee in the spring of 1861 was an abolitionist he was a junior at Yale College he got caught up in abolitionism and anti-slavery as young people get caught up in political fervor and movements of their times sometimes as soon as the civil war broke out in Lincoln called for volunteers and late April 18 sixty-one Uriah Parmelee dropped out of his junior year at Yale and he joined the first regiment he could get into I wasn't one organizing at around New Haven or nearby in Connecticut so he went to New York and he joined the sixth New York cavalry to his brother Parmalee confided I am more of an abolitionist than ever now right up to the handle if I had money enough to raise a few hundred contrabands and arm them I'd get up an insurrection among the slaves told the captain I desert to do it yeah a lot of hoods but in that passage he hasn't seen any real war yet he wants to be John Brown at that point he's going to get himself a band of insurrection isn't going on there and killed some slaveholders he says Parmalee in letters back home to his parents his brothers his sisters and he wrote lots of them he first denounced Lincoln's government for its failure in 1861 even in the early 1862 to come out against slavery to make it a war against slavery he denounces the government he's serving in a letter in late 1861 from the front the present contest he says will indeed settle the question for some years at least as to whether Union our secession the Constitution or rebellion shall triumph but the great heart wound slavery will not be reached he's angry he's pissed off he wants the war to be against slavery and it's not he goes on in a letter in spring 1862 the war still isn't a war against slavery in any official sense and he writes home to his brother saying he wishes he had the quote moral courage to desert because he no longer wants to serve this cause but he doesn't desert by March 1863 he had concluded that emancipation would indeed be achieved this is now in the wake of Congress's confiscation acts in 62 Lincoln's preliminary Proclamation the ultimate Emancipation Proclamation as of January 1863 and by March of that spring he's convinced the war has transformed he refused a furlough to stay and fight he writes home I do not intend to shirk now that there is really something to fight for I mean freedom since the 1st of January it has become more and more evident to my mind that the war is henceforth to be conducted upon a different basis those who profess to love the Union are not so anxious to preserve slavery while those who are opposed to the war acknowledged in all their actions that its continuance will put an end to this accursed system so then I am willing to remain and endure whatever may fall to my share he was honored for bravery by at least three commanding officers in numerous battles especially the Battle of Chancellorsville in May of 1863 he was promoted to captain he eventually switched his New York reg this happened to many regiments in the Civil War took so many casualties it ceased to exist and he switched to a Connecticut regiment and he served that Connecticut regiment through the summer of 1864 the great war of attrition in Virginia he survived the Battle of the wilderness the Battle of Spotsylvania courthouse the Battle of Cold Harbor the entire siege of Petersburg from August of 64 all the way until the end of March of 1865 he was killed on April 1st 1865 at the Battle of five Oaks excuse me at five Forks just west of Richmond the last major engagement of the Civil War and when you walk out today and you go through Woolsey Hall if you haven't done this before you'll note if you haven't before that that's full of the names of Yale College men who have died in war and Uriah Parmelee his name will be right on your right as you're walking through he's this high on my arm or shoulder and there's his name dropped out junior year to fight to destroy slavery and he did for four years and died in the last battle but how do you get to Uriah Parmelee a kid from Connecticut obviously bright enough or connected enough to get into Yale who gave all that up for something he saw as a lot higher if you can come to understand a Uriah Parmelee or better yet if you can come to understand young white northern Yankee anglo-saxon Protestants who often were very contemptuous of Irish immigrants and even more contemptuous of black Americans who nevertheless believed the war of 1861 had to be fought and ultimately came even to support the destruction of slavery if you can understand why those northern Yankees get to that point you really will understand the Civil War Uriah Parmelee had an inheritance how what level he exactly understood it I can't necessarily know although his letters are extraordinarily rich now in that northern Society and here we're using labels pretty loosely but so be it the northern states and well I'll leave the outline up for the moment no I want these I'm told I have to I can brighten that apparently whoops that's backwards it's a wonderful painting of a whoops I didn't do it did it ah what ah someone of old painting from 1830 called the Yankee pedlar everybody's heard of Yankee peddlers they don't come door-to-door anymore unless they're working for the Jehovah's Witnesses oops well or the Environmental Action Committee or the let's see nevermind the woods what's the Yankee pedlar peddling cloth ready-made factory made cloth for a woman a housewife who isn't making her own cloth anymore that's the market revolution there are thousand ways to see it understand it grasp it if the South was a slave society and we tried to demonstrate that last time we tried to define that although it's not defined in that newspaper that you're reading back there in row twelve the market revolution is not reported in this morning's newspaper actually it probably is the markets are going bad although they went back up yesterday but this market revolution is not reported in that newspaper I would venture sorry to interrupt you but if the South was the slave society the North was a market society it was a booming market society by the 1820s and 1830s it was beginning to be a market society even the late 18th century the northern states by the – belén period 1820s 1830s 1840s was beginning to sort of hurdle toward a different future than what that slave Society was perhaps now not really slowly it too was hurtling toward a certain future this market this booming market society with its market commercial consumers mentalities and it's it's belief eventually its faith in its defense of free labor for the common man it's kind of fanfare for the common man ideology would be something a lot of white Southerners would actually fear and be frightened by what is the market revolution it's the time in which it's not a single moment in time of course it's a long process but it's the time in which long-distance commerce began to take hold because of transportation revolutions canals roads railroads in particular it's a time of technological innovation tremendous technological innovation so much technological change that half the time it frightened people now you can find all over American culture in 1818 ten even into the 1820s a lot of fear of Technology what is this thing a telegraph that today you probably don't fear technology I still have a little bit of it I'm still a little 19th century in that sense I hate it when they tell me they want to buy me a new laptop enough already care if it's four years old I want another one don't make me learn something new with my machines the market revolution was driven of course by the growth of cities which became market centers and manufacturing centers maybe more importantly the market revolution is that time in American history that incredible time really when you think about the scale of change when 18th century subsistence farmers who engaged in what was always called or we've always called mixed agriculture that is they grow all kinds of foodstuffs almost always for themselves when that kind of 18th century style farming gave way to commercial farming where farmers now produced cash crops for a much broader market a market on the East Coast if they were in upstate New York or out in Ohio eventually and a market of the whole world it's that period when the home or the farm still a majority of northern people by the 1830s 1840s we're making their livings from agriculture but it's a time when that home and farm became its own domestic factory or people began to produce in their homes for markets not for themselves the vast multitudes were still farmers but they began to now buy goods manufactured goods ready-made clothing and shoes cloth candles soap all kinds of foodstuffs stuff that the 18th century farmer made for him and herself now you bought from a peddler or you bought from a store in town this all of course leads to a change in what European Estonians taught us to call mentalities mentality it brought about fundamental alteration slowly in ways sometimes people never know it's happening fundamental alterations in aspirations in habits in activities in conceptions and definitions of work and leisure what is work and leisure now in a society when you don't have to produce everything for yourself it produced it would produce fundamental alterations in the conception of Labor who's the worker what is labor is a laborer anymore just an individual or is a laborer part of a collective problem part of a collective mentality part of a collective movement against a much greater force now all capital manufacturing their company it's going to alter the very idea of individual rights we have a habit in this society to think that individual rights when when when they when they drafted the Bill of Rights was just laid down for us and it's just travel through time and here they are just go back and look at the founders it's such nonsense it's a historical the very idea of individual rights got reshaped by the market revolution what do you have a right to new shoes it's going to change the very idea of mobility where can you go and how by what means it's going to really change and this is absolutely crucial indirectly and helping us understand this war that's going to come down the way it's going to change for a one or than millions of northern people some of them now immigrants who have come here with a clear purpose and is to make a better life it's going to change their conception of what they can give their children and we're gonna hear a lot more later on next week week after about free labor ideology I do that if labor is left free then that common man always has a chance if the land isn't taken up by large oligarchies like slave like slave holding class then the small guy has a chance but rooted in free labor ideology is among other ideas this notion of mobility that a free labor is a mobile labor especially in a society like the United States that had this thing called the West the limitless apparently to them anyway boundless West even such concepts such great American concepts let's call it that as self-reliance about which Ralph Waldo Emerson may have written his greatest essay I go I go read Emerson self-reliance at least once a year just I don't know to feel better or something it's the quintessential sort of expression of individualism but it's more than that but even an idea like self-reliance I can remake my world I can be anything I want is changed by the market revolution it doesn't mean people believe any less in self-reliance it's just they keep seeing evidence they keep bumping into realities that show them that in the face of the market now especially the boom and bust cycles of the market their individualism is not so powerful the market revolution would on the level of ideas and thinking and sort of common behavior would bring about a kind of combination of tremendous optimism possibly like we've never experienced since so that you can find other moments in American history like the 1950s where a kind of broad broad social optimism took hold of Americans so one of the reasons we had a civil rights movement but at the same time a market revolution is going to bring a certain sense of anxiety even dread even despair it will also it will lead to great wealth of course fortunes will begin to be made in the textile industry and in the railroad industry by the 40s and 50s and in a host of other ways real fortunes and some fortunes will begin to be made in simple financial speculation Wall Street will be born at the same time of course as wealth grows the inequality in wealth grows too specialization will set in workplaces that some you know that your parents generation may have grown up understanding is a very personal place even if you work in a small shop it only only had eight workers and you were related to half of them the workplace would become less personal bigger uncontrollable women went to work most famously in the Lowell factories in Massachusetts in other places among the many images of the famous mill girls is this one taken in 1850 I believe in Lowell Massachusetts she looks about nine years old she may have been 12 or 13 both for the first time in significant numbers young girls and young women left farms left the realm of domesticity left that world in which they presumably had been shielded his children and now entered a world where they were child laborers and in a world now that breeds child labor and even defends child labor you have problems market revolution would also lead to a lot of natural environmental degradation people got to be got worried about rivers they really did there's now an environmental history being written none of the impact of the market revolution and as I mentioned earlier it would lead of course to big cycles of boom and bust a big Depression hit in 1837 another big Depression hit in 1857 much more on that 1857 panic as they were called them a little later in the course because it's absolutely pertinent to what happened in the great political debates of the late 1850s even the idea of what a child is since we've got a child up here even the idea of there's a growing little subfield now of children's history which is actually very interesting it's a guy named Jim Martin at Marquette University has pioneered this even the idea of a child and a child's place in a family undergoes a kind of revolution in 20 or 30 years in a working class family and immigrant working-class family in particular by the 30s and 40s a child meant income a child mental worker everybody had to work and usually outside of whatever was home but what also said in in the growing middle-class of course was a more bourgeois definition of childhood a more modern definition of childhood born somewhere there between 1800 and 1860 where the child was to be a protected youth shielded and not used by a family parenting in this new bourgeois conception of family parenting was to be moral guardianship or so it seemed what the market revolution was in so many ways was an engine a tremendous Charles Sellars is written the famous book on this was it was a tremendous engine for what became arguably the most prevalent idea of the entire 19th century in America and that's the notion of progress America was now going to be the nation of progress it was going to be the place of progress it seemed to have boundless borders and boundless resources it looked like it could expand on those forever it had tremendous riches in or it had tremendous natural wealth it would therefore be the place of progress in the world and as Walt Whitman wrote in poem after poem and other poets did as well and politicians said over and over and over and over America and this United States this nation formed there would be the beginning of a new man a new start for humankind that's a big idea of course we still want to be there it's never vanished in our culture we still sometimes want to be Winthrop City on the hill beacon of something for everybody but think with me just for one second about the idea of progress if you come to believe if you say to the world we are the hope of humans we are the hope of Earth we are progress and by the way we the people of progress are rooted in those principles of the Declaration of Independence which are written down essentially as Creed's and oh and by the way we have a written constitution we actually wrote it down we have a Bill of Rights where we declare these things on paper unlike the Brits what have you done you said we are really special and we are really important and we are really good you kind of set yourself up having somebody walks in you're meeting them for the first time hello I'm a beacon of progress and good and hope in the world how do you do you're probably going to think oh you know this instantly your cynicism kicks anything it was this jerk the doctrine of progress I'm simply saying is always bread it's contradictions and were a whole bunch I'm laying out there weren't there they were laying all over the place but you know you couldn't resist it how could you resist a sense of change in 1820s New York 1830s Philadelphia 1840s and 50s Ohio 1850s Chicago which was already by the 1850s a railroad capital of North America how could you resist that sense of change Tocqueville couldn't resist it it was the thing he couldn't stop writing about democracy in America and he was only observing in 1831 he didn't come back and see it in the 1850s he was he was just amazed that these Americans how they just moved all the time and it was just so full of hope all the time he said Americans would always build a house but then move before they put a roof on they were always mobile always going somewhere always changing part of that change of course bringing fear with it was immigration in the 1830 600,000 immigrants came to the United States almost entirely from Western Europe in the 1840s alone 1.5 million and in the 1850s almost 3 million more by 1852 53 Boston in New York think about this Boston although we're getting close to that again Boston and New York had 50% foreign-born population one of every two people in New York City in 1852 was born outside the United States same in Boston close to that in Philadelphia the northern cities seats of market culture commercialism manufacturing were immigrant cities all this of course was fueled by I mentioned it already a transportation revolution symbolized by the Erie Canal finished in 1825 which remained profitable all the way out into the 1880s the longest ditch in the world as it was called 300 and some odd miles out to Buffalo it was a romantic and by the way about 3,300 miles of such canals would be built by the middle of the 1850 all for the purpose of Commerce and to move people steamboats became the romantic symbol of this great transportation revolution and all of this movement although they – they – brought dread with them one-third of every steamboat built in the United States before 1850 exploded and destroyed it became a wreck and there's no mistaking in Mark Twain's imagination if you remember the scene in Huck Finn I mean among the hundred eternal take-home images and Huck Finn is that mom and when how can Jim are on their raft it's a little foggy I can't quite see they can hear and pretty soon that steamboat just smashes into that raft and over they go steamboats were wonderful and exciting and romantic you could go gamble on them you can go get sex on them they also might just blow you up and of course railroads which reshaped North America no continent you could argue had ever been quite made it ready-made if you want for railroads quite like North America it fit the environment perfectly once they could make these things actually go 25 miles an hour they never figured out how to build gauges properly there were some 12 to 15 different widths of railroads in the northern states alone by the 1850s you could go into one town on a gauge Sutton I don't know three feet wide but on the other side of town it would come out four feet wide why they never quite sat down standardized all this I have no idea but railroads revolutionized an American sense of time their ability to travel it revolutionized manufacturing it revolutionized how quickly you could get to markets and it made Chicago Chicago it also made the first multi millionaires the first massive fortunes and it became the first great example of the deep relationship in the 19th century back in our heyday of lays a fair government ho-ho of a relationship between the federal government and business the great American railroads were built by and large for decades but government subsidies and a tremendous amount of corruption the railroad had a lot to do too of course with northeast with Northwest which has a lot to do with a certain sense of economic isolation that's said in in the South to some extent and I'll just say a word quickly that that don't underestimate the influence here of an ideology beneath this we usually only talk about manifest destiny when we're talking about the westward movement beyond the Mississippi we only usually bring it up when we're talking about the Mexican War and it's aftermath or something the manifest destiny was a very old American idea it was probably coined by this journalist named O'Sullivan although now there's a new theory that it wasn't us I I leave it to my expert colleagues in history of the American West to decided exactly who came up of the term manifest destiny who actually first used it but manifest destiny was in some ways the fuel of the American imagination it combines so many ideas under that heading you you might call American Progress came the sense of American mission spreading Liberty spreading democracy spreading Christianity a Christian civilization was deeply at the root of this cluster of ideas we call manifest destiny as was a virulent kind of nationalism that boomed after the war of 1812 and through the 1820s into the 1830s and manifest destiny was the engine of capitalism make no mistake why did we want all that land in the Mexican Cession why did we want Oregon why did we want California and deep at the root of manifest destiny of course in his book after book written on this is a deep and abiding American white supremacy it was the destiny of a white anglo-saxon Protestant United States to take control and improve this great land it had been given now before I leave that let me just suggest sometimes one of the ways when you want to understand how progress builds builds in its own contradictions and why I think contradiction is what makes American history interesting we are our contradiction that's why the world is fascinated with us look at the literature go back to all the way to James Fenimore Cooper his leather stockings tales are full of a certain anxiety about what might be happening to that frontier what's coming from east to west Reid's to Rosa Walden what's the row up to me Thoreau may have been a snob he may have been smarmy and he may wanted you to think he was cool because he sold pencils but he wrote one of the most brilliant critiques of change and what it can mean any American ever wrote when Thoreau sits on his little stool outside his cabin at Walden Pond and he hears the train go by over the ridge and he puts his hands over his ears he doesn't want to hear it he's representing something I'm not saying it was right I mean the damn fool should have got down and you know got real with railroads but he didn't what is Emerson up to him is that's a nature and almost every poem Walt Whitman wrote he seems to be fashioning himself if not the whole of this American people but sometimes he did call an American race as a new Adam I the singer of Adamic songs he said it directly through the new garden of the West the great cities calling as Adam early in the morning walking forth from the bower refresh lessly behold where I pass here my voice he goes on I can do anything in this American West this American possibility but as soon as we read Whitman then you realize as Nathaniel Hawthorne who in 1844 even before Whitman started writing most of his poems Hawthorne was a pretty doubtful he was an old Puritan it was a conservative doubtful kind of he was a real New Englander Hawthorne wrote a short story you should read sometime as a balance to all of this optimism of this period irresistible as that optimism was it's called Earth's Holocaust have you ever read that an incredible story he has this whole group of people out somewhere on the American frontier and there are kind of a cult they decide they're going to have a bonfire and they build this giant fire and into it they throw everything from the past they throw heraldry they throw every kind of vestige of old world culture and monarchy and aristocracy and civilization they throw all kinds of old books great old books onto the bond they burn everything from Europe everything that's old it's a purification they're going to make up they're going to make a new world they don't need anything from the past and it's Hawthorne's satires his critique of it is apocalyptic angry critique it all these Americans who think they're inventing everything anew every day Hawthorne had a bummer I mean well enough I guess of that although if you want to understand the optimism of that time just dip into leaves of grass read Whitman's old pioneers he can't stop I once counted the number of times he used the word the letter O in that poem and I quit counting like America to Whitman was oh he just couldn't stop well sometimes that all America meant the tinkerer meant the inventor it meant the the guy who invented a new kind of sewing machine and took it in for a patent if you want to understand this Yankee northern market economy society just look at some histories of technological innovation throughout this era and you realize there were just thousands and thousands of patents given mostly to northerners for inventing this or that kind of thing or trinket or firearm or method of producing something or printing press or glass or musical instrument or or Connecticut clocks or the first refrigerators or ice making machines or new locks or new elevators and on and on and on and on and on and on it goes I forget maybe maybe in Charles cellars he said if you want to see the market revolution happening go study the archives of the US Patent Office I always found that kind of research road boring but I think he had a point now in any society changing this much this fast doubling its own population doubling in 25 years if the rate of population growth of the United States between 1820 and 1850 had sustained over time we'd have today approximately one and a half billion people in the United States now it didn't and we had these world wars and at all this history in between what do we have now 300 million if the rate of growth that's sustained that's what the population with any era of great change great ferment usually causes reform anxiety people who get worried want to change things we've probably had four major periods in American history of as one of the picture I wanted to put up now I'll leave that little girl up she's much better than me I had a picture of the Lowell mills and signe of you know NIDA we had probably four great reform periods in American history now I'm by reform I mean a period in which people became professional reformers movements organizations societies whole newspapers came into existence magazines came into existence to either eradicate something to change something or to build something fundamental challenges to the social order the first is this era of the 1820s 30s 40s and 50s antebellum America exemplified most obviously by the anti-slavery movement which is where we're going to get to as we leave today because there were many other reform movements at the time the second great reform era is the Progressive Era a great response to urbanization industrialization and immigration as it had never quite happened before the third is in all likelihood the New Deal the Great Depression the incredible emergencies and crises of what governments other people and people owe their governments that the Great Depression cost caused and the New Deal brought a fundamental new set of approaches ideas which we're still debating today it's all over our political culture whether it's named or not and the fourth one is the 60s there it had less to do often with social forms of reform although that's not entirely truth and it had to do with the civil rights revolution and the Vietnam war in American history our reform Crusades have usually had to do with one of several objects or purposes or problems the first is the industrializing process and we've been living that the the history of how to reform the industrializing process and now the post industrializing process ever since our first market revolution we're still living it why are we having a debate over Social Security the second is racial equality and we're still having that reform movement well or are we the third is gender equality that's at least as old as abolitionism the fourth is war we've got peace movements in American history an anti-war fervor and ferment of all kinds for a very long time and the fifth kind of American reform and it's here it takes on sometimes some distinctive distinctly American forms is religious and individual morality movements of piety movements that try to define deviance and others and try to reform others to a certain personal conception of faith or religion or behavior but whenever we've had a reform era has been a big issue on two or three or four that's why all these arguments that we all get into these days about third party political candidates you know what do we really need in our political culture what would break apart the stagnation of our two-party system if that's what people want or put more directly will Michael Bloomberg run or not I always throw that back at people and say damn it read some history there's never been a successful third party political culture take hold in this country without one really big issue to drive it name that issue that Michael Bloomberg Bloomberg would use I'm a billionaire and you can be too that's unfair I know he's a nice guy let me just end here with this to be anti-slavery in America by the 1820s and 1830s was to face a host of barriers and I'll come back to these barriers next time our host of barriers the sanctity of the US Constitution the depth of that pro-slavery argument which a merit was northern abolitionists over time had to actually come to to realize even existed and they began to realize it existed in the 1820s and 30s they faced tremendous barriers there was no good reason in the world that an abolitionist in the 1830s 40s even the 50s had any right to believe they would see the end of slavery in their lifetime and last point one of the barriers think about this one of the barriers that an anti-slavery and if you were you were worried about slavery in America its expansion its influence in the government what it did to free labor how it might retard that market revolution that you wanted your children to benefit from whatever position you might end up taking between 1830 and 1860 that made you at least suspicious of slavery whatever you thought of African Americans one of the barriers you're up against is the simple fact that the United States was a republic and that the side that owned those slaves that vast slave Society half of the United States it's still half the states in 1850 they were free their leaders at least were free to defend their system they were free to dissent they were Republicans small are two the greatest tragedy of America of American history arguably is that this struggle could not be decided by debate okay see in the gym




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